How to format your references using the Kidney Disease and Transplantation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Kidney Disease and Transplantation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Curchoe CL. The power of mentoring. Science. 2015;350:478.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Fraser PJ, Shelmerdine RL. Dogfish hair cells sense hydrostatic pressure. Nature. 2002;415:495–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ohbayashi M, Ohki K, Miyashita Y. Conversion of working memory to motor sequence in the monkey premotor cortex. Science. 2003;301:233–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Bell RE, Studinger M, Tikku AA, Clarke GKC, Gutner MM, Meertens C. Origin and fate of Lake Vostok water frozen to the base of the East Antarctic ice sheet. Nature. 2002;416:307–10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Lalanne C. Random Vibration. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Chaudhuri S. Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Countries: A Theoretical Evaluation. Mukhopadhyay U, editor. New Delhi: Springer India; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hirao T, Moriuchi T, Groß A. Bioconjugates to Induce Chirality Organization. In: Hirao T, editor. Functionalized Redox Systems: Synthetic Reactions and Design of π- and Bio-Conjugates. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015. p. 111–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Kidney Disease and Transplantation.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Everything You Need To Know About Tor And The Deep Web [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. ADP Systems: Concerns About DOD’s Composite Health Care System Development Contracts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Jun. Report No.: IMTEC-87-25.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Britt CA. Dying in America: A historical analysis of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Rothenberg B. In Wawrinka, Federer Will Face a Protégé With His Own Stellar Résumé. New York Times. 2017 Jan 24;B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleKidney Disease and Transplantation
ISSN (online)2058-511X

Other styles