How to format your references using the Kidney Disease and Transplantation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Kidney Disease and Transplantation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Gershon D. In the market-place. Nature. 2004;432:243–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lin CD, Chu W-C. Physics. Controlling atomic line shapes. Science. 2013;340:694–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Solov’yov IA, Domratcheva T, Schulten K. Separation of photo-induced radical pair in cryptochrome to a functionally critical distance. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3845.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ishikawa HO, Takeuchi H, Haltiwanger RS, Irvine KD. Four-jointed is a Golgi kinase that phosphorylates a subset of cadherin domains. Science. 2008;321:401–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Liautaud M. Breaking Through. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
1. Saeed K, Pejaś J, editors. Information Processing and Security Systems. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Barta A, Kalyna M, Lorković ZJ. Plant SR Proteins and Their Functions. In: Reddy ASN, Golovkin M, editors. Nuclear pre-mRNA Processing in Plants. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 83–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Kidney Disease and Transplantation.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Researchers Use Gene Editing To Mimic A Mutation That Confers HIV Resistance In The Lab. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Further Improvements Needed to identify and Oversee Poorly Planned and Performing Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Sep. Report No.: GAO-07-1211T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Galan M. Educational practices to support homeless students [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. Eight Teams That Will Try Their Best. How Novel. New York Times. 2010 Jan 9;D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleKidney Disease and Transplantation
ISSN (online)2058-511X

Other styles