How to format your references using the Kidney Disease and Transplantation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Kidney Disease and Transplantation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Marrucci G. Materials science. Polymers go with the flow. Science. 2003;301:1681–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Druckman JN, Lupia A. Social science. Experimenting with politics. Science. 2012;335:1177–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. McGuire JJ, Boettcher MS, Jordan TH. Foreshock sequences and short-term earthquake predictability on East Pacific Rise transform faults. Nature. 2005;434:457–61.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Cardinal RN, Pennicott DR, Sugathapala CL, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ. Impulsive choice induced in rats by lesions of the nucleus accumbens core. Science. 2001;292:2499–501.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. D’Amico G, Di Biase G, Janssen J, Manca R. Semi-Markov Migration Models for Credit Risk. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Didimo W, Patrignani M, editors. Graph Drawing: 20th International Symposium, GD 2012, Redmond, WA, USA, September 19-21, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Sung K, Pavleas J, Arnez F, Pace J. Working with Textures, Sprites, and Fonts. In: Pavleas J, Arnez F, Pace J, editors. Build Your Own 2D Game Engine and Create Great Web Games: Using HTML5, JavaScript, and WebGL. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2015. p. 127–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Kidney Disease and Transplantation.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Hybrid Species Are On The March – With The Help Of Humans [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Classification and Qualification Standards for the GS-1410 Library-Information Service Series. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983 Aug. Report No.: GGD-83-97.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Dimick E. A Comparative Study on Pheromone Communication between Schizophyllum species [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Schmidt MS. Trump Appealed to Comey to Halt Inquiry Into Aide. New York Times. 2017 May 16;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleKidney Disease and Transplantation
ISSN (online)2058-511X

Other styles