How to format your references using the Journal of Terramechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Terramechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Giblin, S., 2007. Applied physics. One electron makes current flow. Science 316, 1130–1131.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nicolet, A., Zolla, F., 2009. Physics. Cloaking with curved spaces. Science 323, 46–47.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, Z., Szolnoki, A., Perc, M., 2013. Optimal interdependence between networks for the evolution of cooperation. Sci. Rep. 3, 2470.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yang, T., Zhao, Y.L., Tong, Y., Jiao, Z.B., Wei, J., Cai, J.X., Han, X.D., Chen, D., Hu, A., Kai, J.J., Lu, K., Liu, Y., Liu, C.T., 2018. Multicomponent intermetallic nanoparticles and superb mechanical behaviors of complex alloys. Science 362, 933–937.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zlokarnik, M., 2005. Scale-up. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Li, Y., Huynh, D.T., Das, S.K., Du, D.-Z. (Eds.), 2008. Wireless Algorithms, Systems, and Applications: Third International Conference, WASA 2008, Dallas, TX, USA, October 26-28, 2008. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kurtz, J., Wortman, B., 2014. Building the Environment and Creating the Source Tree, in: Wortman, B. (Ed.), ASP.NET Web API 2: Building a REST Service from Start to Finish. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp. 31–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Terramechanics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. First new river dolphin species found since World War I [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. Customs Service Modernization: Results of Review of First Automated Commercial Environment Expenditure Plan (No. GAO-01-696). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huang, Y., 2017. Sliding Mode Observer Design for Permanent Magnetic Synchronous Generator Based Wind Energy Conversion Systems (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kwai, I., 2017. Oy, Mate, Amazon Plans To Hire Aussie Speakers. New York Times A5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Giblin, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Giblin, 2007; Nicolet and Zolla, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nicolet and Zolla, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Yang et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Terramechanics
AbbreviationJ. Terramech.
ISSN (print)0022-4898
ScopeMechanical Engineering

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