How to format your references using the Journal of Terramechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Terramechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wu, S., 2013. State tomography via weak measurements. Sci. Rep. 3, 1193.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lechler, T., Fuchs, E., 2005. Asymmetric cell divisions promote stratification and differentiation of mammalian skin. Nature 437, 275–280.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ghaffari, H.O., Nasseri, M.H.B., Young, R.P., 2014. Faulting of rocks in a three-dimensional stress field by micro-anticracks. Sci. Rep. 4, 5011.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Karski, M., Förster, L., Choi, J.-M., Steffen, A., Alt, W., Meschede, D., Widera, A., 2009. Quantum walk in position space with single optically trapped atoms. Science 325, 174–177.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Calloway, J., 2007. Work Like You’re Showing Off! John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Feng, H., Mao, Y., Zhang, J.H. (Eds.), 2011. Early Brain Injury or Cerebral Vasospasm: Volume 2: Clinical Management, Acta Neurochirurgica Supplements. Springer, Vienna.
A chapter in an edited book
Haupt, S.E., 2009. Introduction to Genetic Algorithms, in: Haupt, S.E., Pasini, A., Marzban, C. (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence Methods in the Environmental Sciences. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 103–125.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Terramechanics.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Males Prove Mosquito Weak Link [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2015. Public Transit: Updated Guidance and Expanded Federal Authority Could Facilitate Bus Procurement (No. GAO-15-676). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kinney, E.L., 2009. Isolation, identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility analysis of Enterococccus spp. and Salmonella spp. from conventional poultry farms transitioning to organic farming practices (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barnes, B., 2012. In the Footsteps of Marvel. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wu, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Lechler and Fuchs, 2005; Wu, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lechler and Fuchs, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Karski et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Terramechanics
AbbreviationJ. Terramech.
ISSN (print)0022-4898
ScopeMechanical Engineering

Other styles