How to format your references using the Journal of Terramechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Terramechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koshland, D.E., Jr, 2007. Philosophy of science. The Cha-Cha-Cha Theory of Scientific Discovery. Science 317, 761–762.
A journal article with 2 authors
Keene, W.C., Pszenny, A.A.P., 2004. Comment on “Reactions at interfaces as a source of sulfate formation in sea-salt particles” (I). Science 303, 628; author reply 628.
A journal article with 3 authors
Whitfield, C.W., Cziko, A.-M., Robinson, G.E., 2003. Gene expression profiles in the brain predict behavior in individual honey bees. Science 302, 296–299.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Holmgren, M., Wagg, J., Bezanilla, F., Rakowski, R.F., De Weer, P., Gadsby, D.C., 2000. Three distinct and sequential steps in the release of sodium ions by the Na+/K+-ATPase. Nature 403, 898–901.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kwok, S., 2011. Organic Matter in the Universe. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Bolón-Canedo, V., 2015. Feature Selection for High-Dimensional Data, Artificial Intelligence: Foundations, Theory, and Algorithms. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Girsang, I.P., Dhupia, J.S., 2015. Machine Tools for Machining, in: Nee, A.Y.C. (Ed.), Handbook of Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. Springer, London, pp. 811–865.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Terramechanics.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Doctors have cleared second baby of HIV [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Education Taking Needed Actions But Work Remains (No. T-AIMD-99-180). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meyer, M.A., 2014. Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of the Mediterranean Mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M., 1992. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; Clinton Readies Answer to Bush On Draft Issue. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koshland, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Keene and Pszenny, 2004; Koshland, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Keene and Pszenny, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Holmgren et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Terramechanics
AbbreviationJ. Terramech.
ISSN (print)0022-4898
ScopeMechanical Engineering

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