How to format your references using the Journal of Terramechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Terramechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knapp, S., 2000. What’s in a name? Nature 408, 33.
A journal article with 2 authors
Margot, J.L., Brown, M.E., 2003. A low-density M-type asteroid in the main belt. Science 300, 1939–1942.
A journal article with 3 authors
Karsai, M., Perra, N., Vespignani, A., 2014. Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties. Sci. Rep. 4, 4001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fan, J., Rosenfeld, D., Zhang, Y., Giangrande, S.E., Li, Z., Machado, L.A.T., Martin, S.T., Yang, Y., Wang, J., Artaxo, P., Barbosa, H.M.J., Braga, R.C., Comstock, J.M., Feng, Z., Gao, W., Gomes, H.B., Mei, F., Pöhlker, C., Pöhlker, M.L., Pöschl, U., de Souza, R.A.F., 2018. Substantial convection and precipitation enhancements by ultrafine aerosol particles. Science 359, 411–418.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ambachtsheer, K.P., 2016. The Future of Pension Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Read, J. (Ed.), 2016. Post-admission Language Assessment of University Students, English Language Education. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Vatsavai, V., Suravarapu, S., Mir, N.F., 2016. Implementation of P2P File Sharing Using Bi-directional Chord Protocol Algorithm, in: Sulaiman, H.A., Othman, M.A., Othman, M.F.I., Rahim, Y.A., Pee, N.C. (Eds.), Advanced Computer and Communication Engineering Technology: Proceedings of ICOCOE 2015, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 51–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Terramechanics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Poo-Powered Bus Breaks UK’s Land Speed Record [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1983. GAO ADP Data Lines: Issue No. 1 (No. 122631). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boylan, M., 2010. Acute physiological resonses to yoga activity in a hot environment (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sanger, D.E., Schmitt, E., Hubbard, B., 2017. Trump Ends Covert Aid to Syrian Rebels Trying to Oust Assad. New York Times A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Knapp, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Knapp, 2000; Margot and Brown, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Margot and Brown, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Fan et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Terramechanics
AbbreviationJ. Terramech.
ISSN (print)0022-4898
ScopeMechanical Engineering

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