How to format your references using the Journal of Terramechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Terramechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jackson, S.C., 2009. Climate change. Parallel pursuit of near-term and long-term climate mitigation. Science 326, 526–527.
A journal article with 2 authors
Freeman, R.B., Huang, W., 2014. Collaboration: Strength in diversity. Nature 513, 305.
A journal article with 3 authors
Scales, S.J., Finley, M.F., Scheller, R.H., 2001. Cell biology. Fusion without SNAREs? Science 294, 1015–1016.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zebker, H.A., Stiles, B., Hensley, S., Lorenz, R., Kirk, R.L., Lunine, J., 2009. Size and shape of Saturn’s moon Titan. Science 324, 921–923.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Peterson, R.L., 2016. Trading on Sentiment. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Simmons, K., 2012. Pro SQL Server 2012 Administration. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Francesconi, A., Dossena, C., 2015. A Strategic and Organizational Perspective for Understanding the Evolution of Online Reputation Management Systems, in: Mola, L., Pennarola, F., Za, S. (Eds.), From Information to Smart Society: Environment, Politics and Economics, Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organisation. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 49–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Terramechanics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Studying Down Syndrome Might Help Us Understand Alzheimer’s Disease Better [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Space Station: Improving NASA’s Planning for External Maintenance (No. NSIAD-92-271). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zivkovic, O., 2010. Ternary nanomaterials: Synthesis by alkalide reduction and characterization (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B., 2017. Saudi Arabia Detains Critics of Crown Prince. New York Times A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zhang, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Cantor, 2000; Gibson, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Freeman and Huang, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Radajewski et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Terramechanics
AbbreviationJ. Terramech.
ISSN (print)0022-4898
ScopeMechanical Engineering

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