How to format your references using the Journal of Terramechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Terramechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boyle, E., 2002. Oceanography. Oceanic salt switch. Science 298, 1724–1725.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shirts, M., Pande, V.S., 2000. COMPUTING: Screen Savers of the World Unite! Science 290, 1903–1904.
A journal article with 3 authors
Petsch, S.T., Eglington, T.I., Edwards, K.J., 2001. 14C-dead living biomass: evidence for microbial assimilation of ancient organic carbon during shale weathering. Science 292, 1127–1131.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kawate, T., Michel, J.C., Birdsong, W.T., Gouaux, E., 2009. Crystal structure of the ATP-gated P2X(4) ion channel in the closed state. Nature 460, 592–598.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Feyel, P., 2013. Loop-shaping Robust Control. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Vincent, J.-L. (Ed.), 2010. Intensive Care Medicine. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Rhodes, T.E., Dadds, M.R., 2011. Assessment of Conduct Problems Using an Integrated, Process-Oriented Approach, in: Murrihy, R.C., Kidman, A.D., Ollendick, T.H. (Eds.), Clinical Handbook of Assessing and Treating Conduct Problems in Youth. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 77–113.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Terramechanics.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2017. Retired Man Solves Decades-Old Maths Problems While Brushing His Teeth [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2013. Education Needs to Further Examine Data Collection on English Language Learners in Charter Schools (No. GAO-13-655R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Uzoff, P.P., 2014. Virtual school teacher’s science efficacy beliefs: The effects of community of practice on science-teaching efficacy beliefs (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J., 2017. New Life for an Immortal Story. New York Times BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boyle, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Boyle, 2002; Shirts and Pande, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shirts and Pande, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Kawate et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Terramechanics
AbbreviationJ. Terramech.
ISSN (print)0022-4898
ScopeMechanical Engineering

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