How to format your references using the Karbala International Journal of Modern Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Karbala International Journal of Modern Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Lok, Smithsonian head ruffled by inquiry, Nature. 412 (2001) 257.
A journal article with 2 authors
W.R. Boos, Z. Kuang, Dominant control of the South Asian monsoon by orographic insulation versus plateau heating, Nature. 463 (2010) 218–222.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Lane, R.L. Robker, S.A. Robertson, Parenting from before conception, Science. 345 (2014) 756–760.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.-C. Han, C.K. Shum, M. Bevis, C. Ji, C.-Y. Kuo, Crustal dilatation observed by GRACE after the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, Science. 313 (2006) 658–662.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F. Adams, K. Aizawa, The Bounds of Cognition, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2010.
An edited book
G. Gasparini, D.F. Hayes, eds., Biomarkers in Breast Cancer: Molecular Diagnostics for Predicting and Monitoring Therapeutic Effect, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Y. Sun, Y. Lin, Modeling Paired Objects and Their Interaction, in: Y. Sun, A. Behal, C.-K.R. Chung (Eds.), New Development in Robot Vision, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015: pp. 73–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Karbala International Journal of Modern Science.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, Some Martian Lakes Formed Much Later Than We Expected, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, [Comments on Proposed Oregon Purchase of Rail Line With Oil Overcharge Settlement], U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.M. Wetherington, The relationship between learning organization dimensions and performance in the nonprofit sector, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, In Assessing Agassi, The Title Tells It All, New York Times. (2009) SP8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleKarbala International Journal of Modern Science
ISSN (print)2405-609X

Other styles