How to format your references using the Karbala International Journal of Modern Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Karbala International Journal of Modern Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Türler, Nuclear chemistry: Lawrencium bridges a knowledge gap, Nature. 520 (2015) 166–167.
A journal article with 2 authors
H.O. Pörtner, R. Knust, Climate change affects marine fishes through the oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance, Science. 315 (2007) 95–97.
A journal article with 3 authors
H.G. Parker, L. Kruglyak, E.A. Ostrander, Molecular genetics: DNA analysis of a putative dog clone, Nature. 440 (2006) E1-2.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Gomez, E.M. Ozbudak, J. Wunderlich, D. Baumann, J. Lewis, O. Pourquié, Control of segment number in vertebrate embryos, Nature. 454 (2008) 335–339.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Kapterev, Presentation Secrets, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
D.A. Simovici, Mathematical Tools for Data Mining: Set Theory, Partial Orders, Combinatorics, Springer, London, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
T.A. Kern, O. Meckel, Internal Structure of Haptic Systems, in: T.A. Kern (Ed.), Engineering Haptic Devices: A Beginner’s Guide for Engineers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 95–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Karbala International Journal of Modern Science.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, Sun Might Enter Very Quiet Period, Limiting Northern Lights Shows To Just North Pole, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Grants to New Jersey, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N. Grayson, Development of a preliminary scale of counterproductive experiences in supervision: Attitudes of clinical psychology doctoral students, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
E. St. John Kelly, Springer’s Harvest, New York Times. (1998) D10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleKarbala International Journal of Modern Science
ISSN (print)2405-609X

Other styles