How to format your references using the Karbala International Journal of Modern Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Karbala International Journal of Modern Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Perk, Perspective: The power of disease prevention, Nature. 493 (2013) S6.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.L. Hughes, D.E. Gottschling, An early age increase in vacuolar pH limits mitochondrial function and lifespan in yeast, Nature. 492 (2012) 261–265.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. Meloso, J. Copic, P. Bossaerts, Promoting intellectual discovery: patents versus markets, Science. 323 (2009) 1335–1339.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.S. Lee, Y.-J. Lee, E.L. Tae, Y.S. Park, K.B. Yoon, Synthesis of zeolite as ordered multicrystal arrays, Science. 301 (2003) 818–821.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Stone, J.D. Gutiérrez-Albilla, A Companion to Luis Buñuel, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2013.
An edited book
M. Mrak, M. Grgic, M. Kunt, eds., High-Quality Visual Experience: Creation, Processing and Interactivity of High-Resolution and High-Dimensional Video Signals, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Sultan, A.E. Khedr, M.M.R. Ali, Multi-Criteria Business Intelligence Approach, in: V.V. Das, E. Ariwa, S.B. Rahayu (Eds.), Signal Processing and Information Technology: First International Joint Conference, SPIT 2011 and IPC 2011, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, December 1-2, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 21–28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Karbala International Journal of Modern Science.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Confirmed Continental Break-up Timeline Has Implications On Search For Extraterrestrial Life, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Enterprise Architecture: Leadership Remains Key to Establishing and Leveraging Architectures for Organizational Transformation, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E.D. Wood, A Study of the Effect of Grouping Students and Results on the Ohio Achievement Assessment for Reading, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.W. Walsh, Struggling Puerto Rico Defaults on Its Debt Payments, New York Times. (2016) B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleKarbala International Journal of Modern Science
ISSN (print)2405-609X

Other styles