How to format your references using the Contemporary Arab Affairs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Contemporary Arab Affairs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stern, Alan. 2012. “Commercial Space Flight Is a Game-Changer.” Nature 484 (7395): 417.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cerdán, Pablo D., and Joanne Chory. 2003. “Regulation of Flowering Time by Light Quality.” Nature 423 (6942): 881–885.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kiesel, Harald, Andreas Renz, and Franz Hasselbach. 2002. “Observation of Hanbury Brown-Twiss Anticorrelations for Free Electrons.” Nature 418 (6896): 392–394.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Rijavec, Matija, Peter Korošec, Mateja Žavbi, Izidor Kern, and Mateja Marc Malovrh. 2014. “Let-7a Is Differentially Expressed in Bronchial Biopsies of Patients with Severe Asthma.” Scientific Reports 4 (August): 6103.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Murdoch, Iona, Sarah Turpin, Bree Johnston, Alasdair MacLullich, and Eve Losman. 2014. Geriatric Emergencies. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ohno, Kaoru, Masatoshi Tanaka, Jun Takeda, and Yoshiyuki Kawazoe, eds. 2008. Nano- and Micromaterials. Vol. 9. Advances in Materials Research. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hart, William E., Carl Laird, Jean-Paul Watson, and David L. Woodruff. 2012. “Miscellaneous Model Components and Utility Functions.” In Pyomo – Optimization Modeling in Python, edited by Carl Laird, Jean-Paul Watson, and David L. Woodruff, 57–65. Springer Optimization and Its Applications. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Contemporary Arab Affairs.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2015. “Schizophrenia Linked To Smoking.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. Student Loan Programs: As Federal Costs of Loan Consolidation Rise, Other Options Should Be Examined. GAO-04-101. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liang, Mai. 2012. “Information, Communication and Wayfinding: Technology Shows Us the World.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, Mary. 2013. “Leaving the High Life.” New York Times, November 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stern 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Stern 2012; Cerdán and Chory 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cerdán and Chory 2003)
  • Three authors: (Kiesel, Renz, and Hasselbach 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Rijavec et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleContemporary Arab Affairs
AbbreviationContemp. Arab Aff.
ISSN (print)1755-0912
ISSN (online)1755-0920
ScopeCultural Studies
Political Science and International Relations

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