How to format your references using the Contemporary Arab Affairs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Contemporary Arab Affairs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brody, Herb. 2014. “Haemophilia.” Nature 515 (7528): S157.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heinrich, Andreas, and Sebastian Loth. 2011. “Physics. A Logical Use for Atoms.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 332 (6033): 1039–1040.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hafed, Ziad M., Laurent Goffart, and Richard J. Krauzlis. 2009. “A Neural Mechanism for Microsaccade Generation in the Primate Superior Colliculus.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323 (5916): 940–943.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Li, S. P., W. S. Lew, J. A. C. Bland, L. Lopez-Diaz, M. Natali, C. A. F. Vaz, and Y. Chen. 2002. “Spin-Engineering Magnetic Media.” Nature 415 (6872): 600–601.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berk, Joseph. 2010. Cost Reduction and Optimization for Manufacturing and Industrial Companies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tu, Yu-Kang, and Darren C. Greenwood, eds. 2012. Modern Methods for Epidemiology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Zeng, Deze, Lin Gu, and Song Guo. 2015. “A General Communication Cost Optimization Framework for Big Data Stream Processing in Geo-Distributed Data Centers.” In Cloud Networking for Big Data, edited by Lin Gu and Song Guo, 79–100. Wireless Networks. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Contemporary Arab Affairs.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Major California Faults Ready To Rupture.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Human Services: Sustained and Coordinated Efforts Could Facilitate Data Sharing While Protecting Privacy. GAO-13-106. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Poudyal Kharel, Aryashree. 2015. “Pyrolysis Studies of Copper and Copper Phosphate Mixtures on a Tungsten Surface.” Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, Ben. 2017. “How Johnson Might Balance Ambassadorship and the Jets.” New York Times, January 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brody 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Brody 2014; Heinrich and Loth 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Heinrich and Loth 2011)
  • Three authors: (Hafed, Goffart, and Krauzlis 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Li et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleContemporary Arab Affairs
AbbreviationContemp. Arab Aff.
ISSN (print)1755-0912
ISSN (online)1755-0920
ScopeCultural Studies
Political Science and International Relations

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