How to format your references using the Contemporary Arab Affairs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Contemporary Arab Affairs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yamamoto, A. 2000. “Crowded Universities Cramp More than Just Students’ Style.” Nature 404 (6773): 13.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anikeeva, Polina, and Ryan A. Koppes. 2015. “BIOENGINEERING. Restoring the Sense of Touch.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 350 (6258): 274–275.
A journal article with 3 authors
Keith, David W., Edward Parson, and M. Granger Morgan. 2010. “Research on Global Sun Block Needed Now.” Nature 463 (7280): 426–427.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Shim, Hyun-Woo, Ah-Hyeon Lim, Jae-Chan Kim, Eunjin Jang, Seung-Deok Seo, Gwang-Hee Lee, T. Doohun Kim, and Dong-Wan Kim. 2013. “Scalable One-Pot Bacteria-Templating Synthesis Route toward Hierarchical, Porous-Co3O4 Superstructures for Supercapacitor Electrodes.” Scientific Reports 3: 2325.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Klugman, Stuart A., Harry H. Panjer, and Gordon E. Willmot. 2013. Loss Models: Further Topics. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Amunts, Katrin, Lucio Grandinetti, Thomas Lippert, and Nicolai Petkov, eds. 2016. Brain-Inspired Computing: Second International Workshop, BrainComp 2015, Cetraro, Italy, July 6-10, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 10087. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Pudenz, Kristen L. 2015. “Quantum Computing Meets the Real World.” In Unconventional Computation and Natural Computation: 14th International Conference, UCNC 2015, Auckland, New Zealand, August 30 -- September 3, 2015, Proceedings, edited by Cristian S. Calude and Michael J. Dinneen, 66–70. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Contemporary Arab Affairs.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “Antifreeze from Ticks Offer Frostbite Protection for Mice.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Federal Software Licenses: Most Agencies Have Reported Planned Actions to Address Our Prior Recommendations on Software License Management. GAO-14-835R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kafi, Walaa. 2013. “The Effects of Patient Demographic Variables on Cesarean Section-Related Surgical Site Infection Rates.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, Linda. 2009. “Moving From Team Sport to Lifelong Fitness.” New York Times, January 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yamamoto 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Yamamoto 2000; Anikeeva and Koppes 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Anikeeva and Koppes 2015)
  • Three authors: (Keith, Parson, and Morgan 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Shim et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleContemporary Arab Affairs
AbbreviationContemp. Arab Aff.
ISSN (print)1755-0912
ISSN (online)1755-0920
ScopeCultural Studies
Political Science and International Relations

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