How to format your references using the Contemporary Arab Affairs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Contemporary Arab Affairs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Livio, Mario. 2012. “Physics: Why Symmetry Matters.” Nature 490 (7421): 472–473.
A journal article with 2 authors
Belloc, Eulàlia, and Raúl Méndez. 2008. “A Deadenylation Negative Feedback Mechanism Governs Meiotic Metaphase Arrest.” Nature 452 (7190): 1017–1021.
A journal article with 3 authors
Min, Seung-Ki, Xuebin Zhang, and Francis Zwiers. 2008. “Human-Induced Arctic Moistening.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 320 (5875): 518–520.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Garabato, Alberto C. Naveira, Kurt L. Polzin, Brian A. King, Karen J. Heywood, and Martin Visbeck. 2004. “Widespread Intense Turbulent Mixing in the Southern Ocean.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 303 (5655): 210–213.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moskowitz, Howard R., Alejandra M. Muñoz, and Maximo C. Gacula Jr. 2008. Viewpoints and Controversies in Sensory Science and Consumer Product Testing. Trumbull, Connecticut, USA: Food & Nutrition Press, Inc.
An edited book
Delsanto, Pier Paolo, ed. 2006. Universality of Nonclassical Nonlinearity: Applications to Non-Destructive Evaluations and Ultrasonic. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee, Ming-Yung, and Cheng-Hung Hu. 2013. “Using Latent Variable to Estimate Parameters of Inverse Gaussian Distribution Based on Time-Censored Wiener Degradation Data.” In Proceedings of the Institute of Industrial Engineers Asian Conference 2013, edited by Yi-Kuei Lin, Yu-Chung Tsao, and Shi-Woei Lin, 29–35. Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Contemporary Arab Affairs.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2016. “New Evidence From Prehistoric Human Teeth Reveals What The ‘Paleo Diet’ Really Looked Like — And It’s Not What You Think.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1971. Relationship of Contractor and Grantee ADP Activities. 092981. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
So, Richard Jean. 2010. “Coolie Democracy: U.S.-China Political and Literary Exchange, 1925-1955.” Doctoral dissertation, New York, NY: Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky, Linda. 2009. “The Sleep Cure.” New York Times, October 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Livio 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Livio 2012; Belloc and Méndez 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Belloc and Méndez 2008)
  • Three authors: (Min, Zhang, and Zwiers 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Garabato et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleContemporary Arab Affairs
AbbreviationContemp. Arab Aff.
ISSN (print)1755-0912
ISSN (online)1755-0920
ScopeCultural Studies
Political Science and International Relations

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