How to format your references using the Journalism Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journalism Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gavaghan, H. 2000. “Making Moves to Redress the Gender Imbalance.” Nature 405 (6787): 715–716.
A journal article with 2 authors
y Arcas, B. A., and A. Fairhall. 2001. “Archaeology of Type.” Nature 411 (6841): 997.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meierbachtol, T., J. Harper, and N. Humphrey. 2013. “Basal Drainage System Response to Increasing Surface Melt on the Greenland Ice Sheet.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 341 (6147): 777–779.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Huang, Yangyu, Shiyong Liu, Dachuan Guo, Lin Li, and Yi Xiao. 2013. “A Novel Protocol for Three-Dimensional Structure Prediction of RNA-Protein Complexes.” Scientific Reports 3: 1887.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnes, Ethne. 2012. Atlas of Developmental Field Anomalies of the Human Skeleton. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hofmeyr, Benda, ed. 2009. Radical Passivity: Rethinking Ethical Agency in Levinas. Vol. 20. Library of Ethics and Applied Philosophy. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Lux, Alexander, Heiko Mantel, and Matthias Perner. 2012. “Scheduler-Independent Declassification.” In Mathematics of Program Construction: 11th International Conference, MPC 2012, Madrid, Spain, June 25-27, 2012. Proceedings, edited by Jeremy Gibbons and Pablo Nogueira, 25–47. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journalism Practice.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. “Star-Shaped Polymers Developed That Can Kill Superbugs Without Antibiotics.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Air Force F-22 Embedded Computers. AIMD-94-177R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
An, Dongbo. 2017. “Improved Flotation of Bastnaesite and Chalcopyrite.” Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, Ben. 2017. “U.S. to Face Honduras With a Depleted Roster.” New York Times, March 23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gavaghan 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gavaghan 2000; y Arcas and Fairhall 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (y Arcas and Fairhall 2001)
  • Three authors: (Meierbachtol, Harper, and Humphrey 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Huang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournalism Practice
ISSN (print)1751-2786
ISSN (online)1751-2794

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