How to format your references using the Journalism Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journalism Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mellars, Paul. 2006. “Going East: New Genetic and Archaeological Perspectives on the Modern Human Colonization of Eurasia.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5788): 796–800.
A journal article with 2 authors
Semmelhack, Julia L., and Jing W. Wang. 2009. “Select Drosophila Glomeruli Mediate Innate Olfactory Attraction and Aversion.” Nature 459 (7244): 218–223.
A journal article with 3 authors
Neale, Matthew J., Jing Pan, and Scott Keeney. 2005. “Endonucleolytic Processing of Covalent Protein-Linked DNA Double-Strand Breaks.” Nature 436 (7053): 1053–1057.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Cocheo, V., P. Sacco, C. Boaretto, E. De Saeger, P. P. Ballesta, H. Skov, E. Goelen, N. Gonzalez, and A. B. Caracena. 2000. “Urban Benzene and Population Exposure.” Nature 404 (6774): 141–142.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Avlonas, Nikos, and George P. Nassos. 2013. Practical Sustainability Strategies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Marqué, Christophe, and Alexander Nindos, eds. 2012. Energy Storage and Release through the Solar Activity Cycle: Models Meet Radio Observations. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Itino, Takao, and Akira S. Hirao. 2016. “Plant Genetic Diversity and Plant–Pollinator Interactions Along Altitudinal Gradients.” In Structure and Function of Mountain Ecosystems in Japan: Biodiversity and Vulnerability to Climate Change, edited by Gaku Kudo, 63–88. Ecological Research Monographs. Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journalism Practice.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2016. “Male Bearded Dragons Turn Female In The Heat.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. Mass Transit: FTA Needs to Provide Clear Information and Additional Guidance on the New Starts Ratings Process. GAO-03-701. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rojas, Antonio. 2010. “ASD: A Family Approach Curriculum.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, Ben. 2016. “A Maternal Giant, Spinning Tall Tales.” New York Times, January 15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mellars 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Mellars 2006; Semmelhack and Wang 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Semmelhack and Wang 2009)
  • Three authors: (Neale, Pan, and Keeney 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Cocheo et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournalism Practice
ISSN (print)1751-2786
ISSN (online)1751-2794

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