How to format your references using the Journalism Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journalism Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keenan, Trevor F. 2015. “Phenology: Spring Greening in a Warming World.” Nature 526 (7571): 48–49.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wiseman, R. Luke, and Jeffery W. Kelly. 2011. “Cell Biology. Phosphatase Inhibition Delays Translational Recovery.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 332 (6025): 44–45.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meyer, Jannik C., Matthieu Paillet, and Siegmar Roth. 2005. “Single-Molecule Torsional Pendulum.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5740): 1539–1541.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Sugioka, Hiroko, Yozo Hamano, Kiyoshi Baba, Takafumi Kasaya, Noriko Tada, and Daisuke Suetsugu. 2014. “Tsunami: Ocean Dynamo Generator.” Scientific Reports 4 (January): 3596.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pangarkar, Vishwas Govind. 2014. Design of Multiphase Reactors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Turksen, Kursad, ed. 2013. Stem Cells: Current Challenges and New Directions. Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pfeiffer, Friedrich. 2008. “Dynamics of Hydraulic Systems.” In Mechanical System Dynamics, edited by Friedrich Pfeiffer, 187–212. Lecture Notes in Applied and Computational Mechanics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journalism Practice.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2016. “Some Species May Be Able To Rapidly Adapt To Environmental Change By Altering Gene Expression.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2002. Intellectual Property: Federal Agency Efforts in Transferring and Reporting New Technology. GAO-03-47. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moore, Bryan A. 2010. “The Writing Machine.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davis, Julie Hirschfeld, and Kate Kelly. 2017. “Scrutiny for Architects Of President’s Tax Plan.” New York Times, August 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Keenan 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Keenan 2015; Wiseman and Kelly 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wiseman and Kelly 2011)
  • Three authors: (Meyer, Paillet, and Roth 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Sugioka et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournalism Practice
ISSN (print)1751-2786
ISSN (online)1751-2794

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