How to format your references using the Journalism Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journalism Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bockrath, Marc W. 2012. “Chemistry. A Single-Molecule Engine.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 338 (6108): 754–755.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim, Seung K., and Eric J. Rulifson. 2004. “Conserved Mechanisms of Glucose Sensing and Regulation by Drosophila Corpora Cardiaca Cells.” Nature 431 (7006): 316–320.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xue, Mingshan, Bassam V. Atallah, and Massimo Scanziani. 2014. “Equalizing Excitation-Inhibition Ratios across Visual Cortical Neurons.” Nature 511 (7511): 596–600.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Becker, Michael A., Roman Vaxenburg, Georgian Nedelcu, Peter C. Sercel, Andrew Shabaev, Michael J. Mehl, John G. Michopoulos, et al. 2018. “Bright Triplet Excitons in Caesium Lead Halide Perovskites.” Nature 553 (7687): 189–193.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abu-Jamous, Basel, Rui Fa, and Asoke K. Nandi. 2015. Integrative Cluster Analysis in Bioinformatics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Batini, Carlo. 2008. Qualità Dei Dati: Concetti, Metodi e Tecniche. Edited by Monica Scannapieco. UNITEXT. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Refsdal, Atle, Bjørnar Solhaug, and Ketil Stølen. 2015. “Cybersecurity.” In Cyber-Risk Management, edited by Bjørnar Solhaug and Ketil Stølen, 29–32. SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journalism Practice.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2016. “Study Finds Some Female Fish Evolve Bigger Brains When Males Have Bigger Genitals.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. Transportation Services: Better Dissemination and Oversight of DOT’s Guidance Could Lead to Improved Access for Limited English-Proficient Populations (Spanish Version). GAO-06-185. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chatterji, Siddharth. 2016. “A Novel Agent-Based Dynamic Load Balancing Model for Cloud Networks.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, Linda. 2007. “In Tacoma, A Residential Rebirth.” New York Times, June 24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (King 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Nolet 2009; Clarke 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kim and Rulifson 2004)
  • Three authors: (Xue, Atallah, and Scanziani 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Karpova et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournalism Practice
ISSN (print)1751-2786
ISSN (online)1751-2794

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