How to format your references using the Journalism Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journalism Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mogi, Ken. 2013. “Cognitive Factors Correlating with the Metacognition of the Phenomenal Properties of Experience.” Scientific Reports 3 (November): 3354.
A journal article with 2 authors
Taira, Tomoyuki, and Yukio Hatoyama. 2011. “Nuclear Energy: Nationalize the Fukushima Daiichi Atomic Plant.” Nature 480 (7377): 313–314.
A journal article with 3 authors
Burkle, Laura A., John C. Marlin, and Tiffany M. Knight. 2013. “Plant-Pollinator Interactions over 120 Years: Loss of Species, Co-Occurrence, and Function.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339 (6127): 1611–1615.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lee, Jae-Kap, Sohyung Lee, Yong-Il Kim, Jin-Gyu Kim, Bong-Ki Min, Kyung-Il Lee, Yeseul Park, and Phillip John. 2014. “The Seeded Growth of Graphene.” Scientific Reports 4 (July): 5682.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Porter, Alan L., and Scott W. Cunningham. 2004. Tech Mining. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Keyson, David V., Mary Lou Maher, Norbert Streitz, Adrian Cheok, Juan Carlos Augusto, Reiner Wichert, Gwenn Englebienne, Hamid Aghajan, and Ben J. A. Kröse, eds. 2011. Ambient Intelligence: Second International Joint Conference on AmI 2011, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, November 16-18, 2011. Proceedings. Vol. 7040. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Manseau, J., and M. Keown. 2005. “Development of an Assessment Methodology for Lower Leg Injuries Resulting from Anti-Vehicular Blast Landmines.” In IUTAM Symposium on Impact Biomechanics: From Fundamental Insights to Applications, edited by M. D. Gilchrist, 33–40. Solid Mechanics and Its Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journalism Practice.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2013. “Von Kármán Vortex Streets.” IFLScience. IFLScience.ármán-vortex-streets/.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. Comments on Proposed Legislation to Prohibit the Discharging of Fuel at Sea. B-146333. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gowda, Vinita. 2009. “Pollination Biology and Inter-Island Geographical Variation in the Mutualistic Heliconia (Heliconiaceae)-Hummingbird (Trochilidae) Interaction of the Eastern Caribbean Islands.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dynarski, Susan. 2016. “America Can Fix Its Student Loan Crisis. Ask Australia.” New York Times, July 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mogi 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Mogi 2013; Taira and Hatoyama 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Taira and Hatoyama 2011)
  • Three authors: (Burkle, Marlin, and Knight 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lee et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournalism Practice
ISSN (print)1751-2786
ISSN (online)1751-2794

Other styles