How to format your references using the Journalism Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journalism Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alon, U. 2003. “Biological Networks: The Tinkerer as an Engineer.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5641): 1866–1867.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sander, P. Martin, and Marcus Clauss. 2008. “Paleontology. Sauropod Gigantism.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 322 (5899): 200–201.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alby, Kevin, Dana Schaefer, and Richard J. Bennett. 2009. “Homothallic and Heterothallic Mating in the Opportunistic Pathogen Candida Albicans.” Nature 460 (7257): 890–893.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhang, Jingjiao, Xiaodong Su, Mingrong Shen, Zhihua Dai, Lingjun Zhang, Xiyun He, Wenxiu Cheng, Mengyu Cao, and Guifu Zou. 2013. “Enlarging Photovoltaic Effect: Combination of Classic Photoelectric and Ferroelectric Photovoltaic Effects.” Scientific Reports 3: 2109.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deichmann, Ute. 2005. Flüchten, Mitmachen, Vergessen. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Sarkar, Sourav, Helmut Satz, and Bikash Sinha, eds. 2010. The Physics of the Quark-Gluon Plasma: Introductory Lectures. Vol. 785. Lecture Notes in Physics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wu, Shiquan, and Xun Gu. 2005. “Gene Network: Model, Dynamics and Simulation.” In Computing and Combinatorics: 11th Annual International Conference, COCOON 2005 Kunming, China, August 16–19, 2005 Proceedings, edited by Lusheng Wang, 12–21. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journalism Practice.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2015. “IFLScience Meets Andy Weir: No Life On Mars But We Will Go There, Says The Martian Author.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. Direct Student Loans. HEHS-95-225R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Quinn, Linda. 2013. “The Poetics of Soul: Mythic Narrative as Creative Elegy.” Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Urbina, Ian. 2015. “Forced Labor for Cheap Fish.” New York Times, July 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alon 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Alon 2003; Sander and Clauss 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sander and Clauss 2008)
  • Three authors: (Alby, Schaefer, and Bennett 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournalism Practice
ISSN (print)1751-2786
ISSN (online)1751-2794

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