How to format your references using the Journalism Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journalism Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Malakoff, D. 2000. “PHILANTHROPY: Moore Foundation Targets Science.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 290 (5496): 1481b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blaser, Martin J., and Denise Kirschner. 2007. “The Equilibria That Allow Bacterial Persistence in Human Hosts.” Nature 449 (7164): 843–849.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baker, Philip J., Stephen Harris, and Charlotte C. Webbon. 2002. “Effect of British Hunting Ban on Fox Numbers.” Nature 419 (6902): 34.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ekimov, E. A., V. A. Sidorov, E. D. Bauer, N. N. Mel’nik, N. J. Curro, J. D. Thompson, and S. M. Stishov. 2004. “Superconductivity in Diamond.” Nature 428 (6982): 542–545.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
French, Blaire A. 2016. Chronicles Through the Centuries. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Young Lin, Tsau, Setsuo Ohsuga, Churn-Jung Liau, and Xiaohua Hu, eds. 2006. Foundations and Novel Approaches in Data Mining. Vol. 9. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
De Waele, Michèle, and Paul E. Van Schil. 2014. “Remediastinoscopy.” In The Transcervical Approach in Thoracic Surgery, edited by Marcin Zieliński and Ramón Rami-Porta, 37–44. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journalism Practice.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2015. “Thawing Ancient Permafrost Shown To Rapidly Become Carbon Dioxide.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Federal Judicial Space Follow-Up. GGD-94-135R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Correa, Laura. 2015. “Urban-Rural Differences in Overweight and Obese Status among Adolescents.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lovett, Ian, Jack Healy, Michael S. Schmidt, and Julie Turkewitz. 2015. “Friend Talked of Sleeper Cells Before Rampage.” New York Times, December 12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Malakoff 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Malakoff 2000; Blaser and Kirschner 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Blaser and Kirschner 2007)
  • Three authors: (Baker, Harris, and Webbon 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ekimov et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournalism Practice
ISSN (print)1751-2786
ISSN (online)1751-2794

Other styles