How to format your references using the Journal of Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Conard NJ. Palaeolithic ivory sculptures from southwestern Germany and the origins of figurative art. Nature. 2003 Dec 18;426(6968):830–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Engel H-A, Loss D. Fermionic bell-state analyzer for spin qubits. Science. 2005 Jul 22;309(5734):586–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mookherjee M, Stixrude L, Karki B. Hydrous silicate melt at high pressure. Nature. 2008 Apr 24;452(7190):983–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mannella N, Yang WL, Zhou XJ, Zheng H, Mitchell JF, Zaanen J, et al. Nodal quasiparticle in pseudogapped colossal magnetoresistive manganites. Nature. 2005 Nov 24;438(7067):474–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Islam MR, Islam JS, Zatzman GM, Mughal MAH, Rahman MS. The Greening of Pharmaceutical Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
Salvi RJ, Popper AN, Fay RR, editors. Hair Cell Regeneration, Repair, and Protection. New York, NY: Springer; 2008. (Springer Handbook of Auditory Research; vol. 33).
A chapter in an edited book
Jang HJ, Park SW, Kwag J. Current Trends in Memory Implantation and Rehabilitation. In: Lee S-W, Bülthoff HH, Müller K-R, editors. Recent Progress in Brain and Cognitive Engineering. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. p. 63–72. (Trends in Augmentation of Human Performance).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Brazil’s Sewage Woes Reflect The Growing Global Water Quality Crisis [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Business Systems Modernization: Internal Revenue Service’s Fiscal Year 2005 Expenditure Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 Jul. Report No.: GAO-05-774.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Matos G. Re-fashioning goddesses: Exploring women’s archetypal fashion in the classroom [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Smith M, Kovaleski SF. For Officers After a Shooting, Unseen ‘Grieving.’ New York Times. 2017 Jun 6;A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing
AbbreviationJ. Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs.
ISSN (print)1071-5754
ISSN (online)1528-3976
ScopeAdvanced and Specialised Nursing

Other styles