How to format your references using the Journal of World Systems Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of World Systems Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dajani, Rana. 2011. “The Arab Spring Offers Hope but No Quick Fix.” Nature 477(7362):7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hatton, Robin D., and Casey T. Weaver. 2003. “Immunology. T-Bet or Not T-Bet.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 302(5647):993–94.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kohl, Kathryn P., Corbin D. Jones, and Jeff Sekelsky. 2012. “Evolution of an MCM Complex in Flies That Promotes Meiotic Crossovers by Blocking BLM Helicase.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 338(6112):1363–65.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Srinivasan, G., M. J. Whitehouse, I. Weber, and A. Yamaguchi. 2007. “The Crystallization Age of Eucrite Zircon.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 317(5836):345–47.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cohen, Corine. 2013. Business Intelligence. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gutwirth, Serge, Ronald Leenes, and Paul de Hert, eds. 2015. Reforming European Data Protection Law. Vol. 20. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Chari, Suresh N., Vincenzo V. Diluoffo, Paul A. Karger, Elaine R. Palmer, Tal Rabin, Josyula R. Rao, Pankaj Rohotgi, Helmut Scherzer, Michael Steiner, and David C. Toll. 2010. “Designing a Side Channel Resistant Random Number Generator.” Pp. 49–64 in Smart Card Research and Advanced Application: 9th IFIP WG 8.8/11.2 International Conference, CARDIS 2010, Passau, Germany, April 14-16, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, edited by D. Gollmann, J.-L. Lanet, and J. Iguchi-Cartigny. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of World Systems Research.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2015. “Snake Escapes After Being Eaten By A Larger Snake.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. Information Technology: A Framework for Assessing and Improving Enterprise Architecture Management (Version 1.1) (Superseded by GAO-10-846G). GAO-03-584G. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Arendt, Kayla Rae. 2015. “Symbiosis Establishment and Ecological Effects of Endohyphal Bacteria on Foliar Fungi.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, James. 2017. “New Stat for a Slugger: Back Page Appearances.” New York Times, January 5, B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dajani 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Dajani 2011; Hatton and Weaver 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hatton and Weaver 2003)
  • Three authors: (Kohl, Jones, and Sekelsky 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Srinivasan et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of World Systems Research
ISSN (print)1076-156X

Other styles