How to format your references using the Journal of World Systems Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of World Systems Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, Colin. 2011. “University Cuts Show Science Is Far from Saved.” Nature 469(7329):133.
A journal article with 2 authors
Klausner, Richard, and Pedro Alonso. 2004. “An Attack on All Fronts.” Nature 430(7002):930–31.
A journal article with 3 authors
Helle, Samuli, Virpi Lummaa, and Jukka Jokela. 2002. “Sons Reduced Maternal Longevity in Preindustrial Humans.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296(5570):1085.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ou, Xuedong, Zhengwei Li, Fengren Fan, Hongbo Wang, and Hua Wu. 2014. “Long-Range Magnetic Interaction and Frustration in Double Perovskites Sr₂NiIrO₆ and Sr₂ZnIrO₆.” Scientific Reports 4:7542.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Popescu, Dumitru, Amira Gharbi, Dan Stefanoiu, and Pierre Borne. 2017. Process Control Design for Industrial Applications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gierlichs, Benedikt, Sylvain Guilley, and Debdeep Mukhopadhyay, eds. 2013. Security, Privacy, and Applied Cryptography Engineering: Third International Conference, SPACE 2013, Kharagpur, India, October 19-23, 2013. Proceedings. Vol. 8204. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wasserman, Theodore, and Lori Drucker Wasserman. 2016. “The Effect of Learning on the Development of the Connectome.” Pp. 33–44 in Depathologizing Psychopathology: The Neuroscience of Mental Illness and Its Treatment, edited by L. D. Wasserman. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of World Systems Research.

Blog post
Carpineti, Chris. 2017. “What The Hell Is This Bizarre Thing?” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Issues Related to FAA’s Effectiveness. T-RCED-89-39. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schmisseur, Brooke E. 2002. “An Evaluation of Noise Reduction Effectiveness in Four Digital Hearing Aids.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kounios, John. 2017. “Eureka? Yes, Eureka!” New York Times, June 10, SR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Klausner and Alonso 2004; Macilwain 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Klausner and Alonso 2004)
  • Three authors: (Helle, Lummaa, and Jokela 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ou et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of World Systems Research
ISSN (print)1076-156X

Other styles