How to format your references using the Journal of World Systems Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of World Systems Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Normile, Dennis. 2014. “Lost at Sea.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 344(6187):963–65.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lumaret, R., and N. Ouazzani. 2001. “Plant Genetics. Ancient Wild Olives in Mediterranean Forests.” Nature 413(6857):700.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dethlefsen, Les, Margaret McFall-Ngai, and David A. Relman. 2007. “An Ecological and Evolutionary Perspective on Human-Microbe Mutualism and Disease.” Nature 449(7164):811–18.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Marks, B., M. H. Stowell, Y. Vallis, I. G. Mills, A. Gibson, C. R. Hopkins, and H. T. McMahon. 2001. “GTPase Activity of Dynamin and Resulting Conformation Change Are Essential for Endocytosis.” Nature 410(6825):231–35.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Guzinski, Jaroslaw, Haitham Abu-Rub, and Patryk Strankowski. 2015. Variable Speed AC Drives with Inverter Output Filters. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
FitzGerald, Duncan M., and Jasper Knight, eds. 2005. High Resolution Morphodynamics and Sedimentary Evolution of Estuaries. Vol. 8. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Ciesielski, Vic, Perry Barile, and Karen Trist. 2013. “Finding Image Features Associated with High Aesthetic Value by Machine Learning.” Pp. 47–58 in Evolutionary and Biologically Inspired Music, Sound, Art and Design: Second International Conference, EvoMUSART 2013, Vienna, Austria, April 3-5, 2013. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, edited by P. Machado, J. McDermott, and A. Carballal. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of World Systems Research.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2017. “Tremendous Gas Tsunami Witnessed In The Perseus Cluster.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Educational Testing: The Canadian Experience With Standards, Examinations, and Assessments. PEMD-93-11. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jackson, Margaret A. 2015. “An Action Research Study of Collaborative Relationhips between Psychotherapists and Medical Doctors.” Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rashbaum, William K., Susanne Craig, and Thomas Kaplan. 2015. “Inquiry Is Said to Aim at Chief of State Senate.” New York Times, April 16, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Normile 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Lumaret and Ouazzani 2001; Normile 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lumaret and Ouazzani 2001)
  • Three authors: (Dethlefsen, McFall-Ngai, and Relman 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Marks et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of World Systems Research
ISSN (print)1076-156X

Other styles