How to format your references using the Journal of World Systems Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of World Systems Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bourzac, Katherine. 2015. “Collaborations: Mining the Motherlodes.” Nature 527(7576):S8-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Titus, Sandra, and Xavier Bosch. 2010. “Tie Funding to Research Integrity.” Nature 466(7305):436–37.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wolfe, Jeremy M., Todd S. Horowitz, and Naomi M. Kenner. 2005. “Cognitive Psychology: Rare Items Often Missed in Visual Searches.” Nature 435(7041):439–40.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Aoki, Kazuhiro, Koichi Takahashi, Kazunari Kaizu, and Michiyuki Matsuda. 2013. “A Quantitative Model of ERK MAP Kinase Phosphorylation in Crowded Media.” Scientific Reports 3:1541.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Firth-Cozens, Jenny, and Jamie Harrison. 2010. How to Survive in Medicine. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Miesenberger, Klaus, Christian Bühler, and Petr Penaz, eds. 2016. Computers Helping People with Special Needs: 15th International Conference, ICCHP 2016, Linz, Austria, July 13-15, 2016, Proceedings, Part I. Vol. 9758. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sakawa, Masatoshi, Ichiro Nishizaki, and Hideki Katagiri. 2011. “Multiobjective Fuzzy Random Programming.” Pp. 101–68 in Fuzzy Stochastic Multiobjective Programming, International Series in Operations Research & Management Science, edited by I. Nishizaki and H. Katagiri. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of World Systems Research.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2014. “What Happens When You Give A Squirrel A GoPro?” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1975. Management of the Community Action Against Addiction Program in Cleveland, Ohio. MWD-75-92. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee, Soo Bum. 2009. “Localizing the Effects of Link Flooding Attacks in the Internet.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, George Gene. 2015. “Comics, Classic and Newer, Make a Comeback.” New York Times, November 9, B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bourzac 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bourzac 2015; Titus and Bosch 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Titus and Bosch 2010)
  • Three authors: (Wolfe, Horowitz, and Kenner 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Aoki et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of World Systems Research
ISSN (print)1076-156X

Other styles