How to format your references using the Journal of World Systems Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of World Systems Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ray, Animesh. 2005. “Plant Genetics: RNA Cache or Genome Trash?” Nature 437(7055):E1-2; discussion E2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cane, M. A. and M. Evans. 2000. “CLIMATE VARIABILITY: Enhanced: Do the Tropics Rule?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 290(5494):1107–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Redford, Kent H., Deborah B. Jensen, and James J. Breheny. 2012. “Ecology. Integrating the Captive and the Wild.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 338(6111):1157–58.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Federzoni, Elena A., Magali Humbert, Bruce E. Torbett, Gerhard Behre, Martin F. Fey, and Mario P. Tschan. 2014. “CEBPA-Dependent HK3 and KLF5 Expression in Primary AML and during AML Differentiation.” Scientific Reports 4:4261.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weinstein, Stanley. 2009. The Complete Guide to Fundraising Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Schönherr, Holger. 2010. Scanning Force Microscopy of Polymers. edited by G. J. Vancso. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, Yu-Ting, Jia-Jie Liu, and Yue-Li Wang. 2013. “On Total Covers of Block-Cactus Graphs.” Pp. 33–39 in Advances in Intelligent Systems and Applications - Volume 1: Proceedings of the International Computer Symposium ICS 2012 Held at Hualien, Taiwan, December 12–14, 2012, Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies, edited by R.-S. Chang, L. C. Jain, and S.-L. Peng. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of World Systems Research.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Some Spectacular SEM Images Of The Microscopic World.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. FAA Appropriation Issues. T-RCED-88-32. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simone, Pamela S. 2012. “A Mixed Methods Study of Culturally Proficient Practices in an Elementary School.” Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bennhold, Katrin. 2017. “In Merkel, a Lofty Symbol for German Women, but an Anomaly.” New York Times, September 14, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ray 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Cane and Evans 2000; Ray 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cane and Evans 2000)
  • Three authors: (Redford, Jensen, and Breheny 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Federzoni et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of World Systems Research
ISSN (print)1076-156X

Other styles