How to format your references using the Journal of World Systems Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of World Systems Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Freeman, Katherine H. 2014. “Earth Science: Controls on Isotopic Gradients in Rain.” Nature 516(7529):41–42.
A journal article with 2 authors
Svetlizky, Ilya, and Jay Fineberg. 2014. “Classical Shear Cracks Drive the Onset of Dry Frictional Motion.” Nature 509(7499):205–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kuhn, G., M. Hijri, and I. R. Sanders. 2001. “Evidence for the Evolution of Multiple Genomes in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi.” Nature 414(6865):745–48.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fairclough, D. V., J. I. Brown, B. J. Carlish, B. M. Crisafulli, and I. S. Keay. 2014. “Breathing Life into Fisheries Stock Assessments with Citizen Science.” Scientific Reports 4:7249.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yevick, David, and Hannah Yevick. 2014. Fundamental Math and Physics for Scientists and Engineers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Weller, Bart. 2012. The Definitive Guide to Google AdWords: Create Versatile and Powerful Marketing and Advertising Campaigns. edited by L. Calcott. Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, Shengbo Eben, and Kun Deng. 2014. “Recent Advances in Nonsingular Terminal Sliding Mode Control Method.” Pp. 79–97 in Applied Methods and Techniques for Mechatronic Systems: Modelling, Identification and Control, Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences, edited by L. Liu, Q. Zhu, L. Cheng, Y. Wang, and D. Zhao. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of World Systems Research.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Want More Innovation? Try Connecting The Dots Between Engineering And Humanities.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Telecommunications: Development of Competition in Local Telephone Markets. RCED-00-38. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Byrd, Marvin Lee. 2012. “Investigating an Afterschool Program for Black Teenage Males Designed to Increase Self-Efficacy.” Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Masood, Salman, and Ben Hubbard. 2017. “Pakistan Approves Military Hero to Head a Tricky Saudi-Led Alliance.” New York Times, April 2, A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Freeman 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Freeman 2014; Svetlizky and Fineberg 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Svetlizky and Fineberg 2014)
  • Three authors: (Kuhn, Hijri, and Sanders 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Fairclough et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of World Systems Research
ISSN (print)1076-156X

Other styles