How to format your references using the Annals of General Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of General Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Gavaghan H. Making moves to redress the gender imbalance. Nature. 2000;405:715–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Fugmann SD, Schatz DG. Immunology. One AID to unite them all. Science. 2002;295:1244–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Anderson G, Aagaard B, Hudnut K. Fault interactions and large complex earthquakes in the Los Angeles area. Science. 2003;302:1946–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hao L, Long J, YongBin L, DongRong S, Yan Z, YiGong Z, et al. Hand-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for pulmonary metastasectomy through sternocostal triangle access: superiority in detection of non-imaged pulmonary nodules. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4539.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Dal Pont J-P, Azzaro-Pantel C. New Approaches to the Process Industries. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1. García Alcaraz JL. Just-in-Time Elements and Benefits. Macías AAM, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Li G, Hu Y, Yu Y. Popularity Prediction of Tianya BBS Posts Based on User Behavior. In: Batten L, Li G, Niu W, Warren M, editors. Applications and Techniques in Information Security: 5th International Conference, ATIS 2014, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, November 26-28, 2014 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 33–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of General Psychiatry.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. A Simple Daily Pregnancy Pill Could Boost Population IQ And Save The NHS Money [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Highway Trust Fund: Overview of Highway Trust Fund Financing. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Feb. Report No.: GAO-02-435T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hawkins SH. Lung CT Radiomics: An Overview of Using Images as Data [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. The Choice Confronting the Chief Justice. New York Times. 2016 Nov 10;SR5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of General Psychiatry
AbbreviationAnn. Gen. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1744-859X
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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