How to format your references using the Annals of General Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of General Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Spottiswoode CN. Evolution. How cooperation defeats cheats. Science. 2013;342:1452–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Fitter AH, Fitter RSR. Rapid changes in flowering time in British plants. Science. 2002;296:1689–91.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Qvarnström A, Pärt T, Sheldon BC. Adaptive plasticity in mate preference linked to differences in reproductive effort. Nature. 2000;405:344–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ingersoll AP, Gierasch PJ, Banfield D, Vasavada AR. Moist convection as an energy source for the large-scale motions in Jupiter’s atmosphere. Galileo Imaging Team. Nature. 2000;403:630–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. McMaster MC. LC/MS. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Gaspar-Cunha A, Henggeler Antunes C, Coello CC, editors. Evolutionary Multi-Criterion Optimization: 8th International Conference, EMO 2015, Guimarães, Portugal, March 29 --April 1, 2015. Proceedings, Part II. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Breu J, Menth M. An Improved Relevance Estimation Function for Cooperative Awareness Messages in VANETs. In: Sikora A, Berbineau M, Vinel A, Jonsson M, Pirovano A, Aguado M, editors. Communication Technologies for Vehicles: 6th International Workshop, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2014, Offenburg, Germany, May 6-7, 2014 Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 43–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of General Psychiatry.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. How To Pass A Polygraph Test With Science [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Medicare Transaction System: Strengthened Management and Sound Development Approach Critical to Success. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Nov. Report No.: T-AIMD-96-12.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Khayyat AM. Use of near field communication technology to prevent consumption and usage of expired products [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly C. Vape Shops Fear Effects Of New F.D.A. Rules. New York Times. 2017 May 10;B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of General Psychiatry
AbbreviationAnn. Gen. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1744-859X
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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