How to format your references using the Annals of General Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of General Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Searls DB. The language of genes. Nature. 2002;420:211–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Shi C, Murphy CT. Mating induces shrinking and death in Caenorhabditis mothers. Science. 2014;343:536–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Piana S, Reyhani M, Gale JD. Simulating micrometre-scale crystal growth from solution. Nature. 2005;438:70–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Fadil A, Iida D, Chen Y, Ma J, Ou Y, Petersen PM, et al. Surface plasmon coupling dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures and radiative efficiency improvement. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6392.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Gordon J. Training Camp. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1. Sirois FM, Molnar DS, editors. Perfectionism, Health, and Well-Being. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Dahlke C, Bork H-R. Soil Erosion and Soil Organic Carbon Storage on the Chinese Loess Plateau. In: Lal R, Lorenz K, Hüttl RF, Schneider BU, von Braun J, editors. Recarbonization of the Biosphere: Ecosystems and the Global Carbon Cycle. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. p. 83–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of General Psychiatry.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Winter May Be Returning To Westeros, But Our Next Ice Age Is On Hold [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aircraft Modifications: Overestimates of Costs Generate Excess Funds. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Aug. Report No.: NSIAD-87-199BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Rostambeigi N. Analyzing the correlates of patients’ adoption of preventative health services: Perceived risk, cost and availability of health care services [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Belson K. Head Coach of Broncos Is Expected to Retire. New York Times. 2017 Jan 2;D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of General Psychiatry
AbbreviationAnn. Gen. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1744-859X
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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