How to format your references using the International Journal of Design citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Design. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wootton, J. T. (2001). Local interactions predict large-scale pattern in empirically derived cellular automata. Nature, 413(6858), 841–844.
A journal article with 2 authors
Campbell, E., & Salathé, M. (2013). Complex social contagion makes networks more vulnerable to disease outbreaks. Scientific Reports, 3, 1905.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cao, A., Romanowicz, B., & Takeuchi, N. (2005). An observation of PKJKP: inferences on inner core shear properties. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5727), 1453–1455.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lakes, R. S., Lee, T., Bersie, A., & Wang, Y. C. (2001). Extreme damping in composite materials with negative-stiffness inclusions. Nature, 410(6828), 565–567.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brower, M. C. (2012). Wind Resource Assessment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ropo, M., Westerholm, J., & Dongarra, J. (Eds.). (2009). Recent Advances in Parallel Virtual Machine and Message Passing Interface: 16th European PVM/MPI Users’ Group Meeting, Espoo, Finland, September 7-10, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Enslin, P., & Tjiattas, M. (2012). Democratic Inclusion and Lifelong Learning in a Globalising World. In D. N. Aspin, J. Chapman, K. Evans, & R. Bagnall (Eds.), Second International Handbook of Lifelong Learning (pp. 77–90). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Design.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, November 3). Why Does Scratching An Itch Make It Worse? Retrieved October 30, 2018, from IFLScience website:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1974). The Process for Identifying Needs and Establishing Requirements (No. 092321). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Solorzano, E. (2014). A mindfulness-based psycho-educational group for caregivers of older adults: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011, September 11). From the Men, A Few Highlights After the Deluge. New York Times, p. SP9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wootton, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Campbell & Salathé, 2013; Wootton, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Campbell & Salathé, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Cao, Romanowicz, & Takeuchi, 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lakes, Lee, Bersie, & Wang, 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Design
ISSN (print)1991-3761
ISSN (online)1994-036X

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