How to format your references using the International Journal of Design citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Design. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’shea, T. J. (2000). PCBs Not to Blame. Science (New York, N.Y.), 288(5473), 1965d–1966d.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bongaarts, J., & Sinding, S. (2011). Population policy in transition in the developing world. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6042), 574–576.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lyons, T. W., Reinhard, C. T., & Planavsky, N. J. (2014). The rise of oxygen in Earth’s early ocean and atmosphere. Nature, 506(7488), 307–315.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Dorner, M., Horwitz, J. A., Robbins, J. B., Barry, W. T., Feng, Q., Mu, K., Jones, C. T., Schoggins, J. W., Catanese, M. T., Burton, D. R., Law, M., Rice, C. M., & Ploss, A. (2011). A genetically humanized mouse model for hepatitis C virus infection. Nature, 474(7350), 208–211.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Casadella, V., Liu, Z., & Uzunidis, D. (2015). Innovation Capabilities and Economic Development in Open Economies. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gargaud, M., Irvine, W. M., Amils, R., Cleaves, H. J. (jim), Pinti, D. L., Quintanilla, J. C., Rouan, D., Spohn, T., Tirard, S., & Viso, M. (Eds.). (2015). Encyclopedia of Astrobiology. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lagerlund, H. (2008). The Unity of the Soul and Contrary Appetites in Medieval Philosophy. In T. M. Lennon & R. J. Stainton (Eds.), The Achilles of Rationalist Psychology (pp. 75–91). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Design.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, June 14). Researchers Turn To Science To Try And Save World’s Coral Reefs. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Federal Research: Challenges to Implementing the Advanced Technology Program (RCED/OCE-98-83R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haire, K. K. (2015). Elucidation of the Role of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase in Drug-Induced Toxicity [Doctoral dissertation]. University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M. J., & Drape, J. (2017, October 27). Co-Founder of Alibaba Is Said to Buy a 49 Percent Stake in the Nets. New York Times, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (O’shea, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Bongaarts & Sinding, 2011; O’shea, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bongaarts & Sinding, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Lyons et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Dorner et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Design
ISSN (print)1991-3761
ISSN (online)1994-036X

Other styles