How to format your references using the International Journal of Design citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Design. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Osborne, J. (2010). Arguing to learn in science: the role of collaborative, critical discourse. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5977), 463–466.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stern, D. L., & Orgogozo, V. (2009). Is genetic evolution predictable? Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5915), 746–751.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ackerman, L. K. G., Lovell, M. M., & Weix, D. J. (2015). Multimetallic catalysed cross-coupling of aryl bromides with aryl triflates. Nature, 524(7566), 454–457.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hirotsune, S., Yoshida, N., Chen, A., Garrett, L., Sugiyama, F., Takahashi, S., … Yoshiki, A. (2003). An expressed pseudogene regulates the messenger-RNA stability of its homologous coding gene. Nature, 423(6935), 91–96.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tang, C. (2016). The Data Industry: The Business and Economics of Information and Big Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Giannakopoulou, D., & Salaün, G. (Eds.). (2014). Software Engineering and Formal Methods: 12th International Conference, SEFM 2014, Grenoble, France, September 1-5, 2014. Proceedings (Vol. 8702). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bedinger, P. A., & Fowler, J. E. (2009). The Maize Male Gametophyte. In J. L. Bennetzen & S. C. Hake (Eds.), Handbook of Maize: Its Biology (pp. 57–77). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Design.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, February 20). Guy Makes An Insane 20-Foot Fire Tornado Machine In His Backyard. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Education Grants: Promise Neighborhoods Promotes Collaboration but Needs National Evaluation Plan (No. GAO-14-432). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Szurgyi, A. A. (2012). Leadership competencies required of Army officers to counter the Improvised Explosive Device threat (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, September 3). Conforto Set For Surgery; Mets Drop 2. New York Times, p. SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stuart, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Brody, 2011; Ma, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stern & Orgogozo, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Ackerman, Lovell, & Weix, 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Chang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Design
ISSN (print)1991-3761
ISSN (online)1994-036X

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