How to format your references using the International Journal of Design citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Design. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Noller, H. F. (2005). RNA structure: reading the ribosome. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5740), 1508–1514.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moore, E. B., & Molinero, V. (2011). Structural transformation in supercooled water controls the crystallization rate of ice. Nature, 479(7374), 506–508.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reyners, M., Eberhart-Phillips, D., & Stuart, G. (2007). The role of fluids in lower-crustal earthquakes near continental rifts. Nature, 446(7139), 1075–1078.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bourrier, V., Lovis, C., Beust, H., Ehrenreich, D., Henry, G. W., Astudillo-Defru, N., Allart, R., Bonfils, X., Ségransan, D., Delfosse, X., Cegla, H. M., Wyttenbach, A., Heng, K., Lavie, B., & Pepe, F. (2018). Orbital misalignment of the Neptune-mass exoplanet GJ 436b with the spin of its cool star. Nature, 553(7689), 477–480.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DeRosa, T. F. (2008). Advances in Polymer Chemistry and Methods Reported in Recent US Patents. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Beckner, M. (2013). Microsoft Dynamics CRM API Development for Online and On-Premise Environments (T. Arisawa, Ed.). Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Morshedian, A., & Fain, G. L. (2014). Molecular Mechanism of Adaptation in Vertebrate Rods. In T. Furukawa, J. B. Hurley, & S. Kawamura (Eds.), Vertebrate Photoreceptors: Functional Molecular Bases (pp. 73–90). Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Design.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, August 31). Oldest Man In History Claims To Be 145 But Wants To Die. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1979). Army’s FY 1980 Programs for Procuring Conventional Ammunition, Modernization, and Expansion (LCD-79-416). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Buckingham, T. (2012). Every teacher an English teacher? Literacy strategy teaching and research in the content area of science education [Doctoral dissertation]. Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
de la MERCED, M. J. (2017, May 9). Rothschild Sets Sights On U.S. Tech Investments. New York Times, B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Noller, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Moore & Molinero, 2011; Noller, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moore & Molinero, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Reyners et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Bourrier et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Design
ISSN (print)1991-3761
ISSN (online)1994-036X

Other styles