How to format your references using the International Journal of Design citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Design. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keeling, R. F. (2007). Atmosphere. Deglaciation mysteries. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5830), 1440–1441.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bishop, N. A., & Guarente, L. (2007). Two neurons mediate diet-restriction-induced longevity in C. elegans. Nature, 447(7144), 545–549.
A journal article with 3 authors
Salje, J., Zuber, B., & Löwe, J. (2009). Electron cryomicroscopy of E. coli reveals filament bundles involved in plasmid DNA segregation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5913), 509–512.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Clark, E. A., Golub, T. R., Lander, E. S., & Hynes, R. O. (2000). Genomic analysis of metastasis reveals an essential role for RhoC. Nature, 406(6795), 532–535.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Idelberger, K. (2011). The World of Footbridges. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Kangas, A., & Maltamo, M. (Eds.). (2006). Forest Inventory: Methodology and Applications (Vol. 10). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Bakardjieva, M. (2012). Subactivism. In A. Feenberg & N. Friesen (Eds.), (Re)Inventing The Internet: Critical Case Studies (pp. 85–108). SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Design.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, October 21). It’s Back To The Future Day Today – So What Are The Next Future Predictions? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). Federal Oversight of State Medicaid Management Information Systems Could Be Further Improved (HRD-82-99). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Purnell, C. P. (2012). Exploring teachers’ perceptions of professional development in virtual learning teams [Doctoral dissertation]. Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MONICA KELLY; Monica Kelly lives in Larchmont. (1988, March 27). Three Crows Cause a Neighbor to Take Flights of Fancy. New York Times, 12WC32.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Keeling, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Bishop & Guarente, 2007; Keeling, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bishop & Guarente, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Salje et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Clark et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Design
ISSN (print)1991-3761
ISSN (online)1994-036X

Other styles