How to format your references using the International Journal of Design citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Design. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haberland, H. (2013). Looking from both sides. Nature, 494(7435), E1-2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pienitz, R., & Vincent, W. F. (2000). Effect of climate change relative to ozone depletion on UV exposure in subarctic lakes. Nature, 404(6777), 484–487.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wender, P. A., Kee, J.-M., & Warrington, J. M. (2008). Practical synthesis of prostratin, DPP, and their analogs, adjuvant leads against latent HIV. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5876), 649–652.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ceglarek, I., Piotrowicz, A., Lecion, D., Miernikiewicz, P., Owczarek, B., Hodyra, K., … Dąbrowska, K. (2013). A novel approach for separating bacteriophages from other bacteriophages using affinity chromatography and phage display. Scientific Reports, 3, 3220.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hadjsaïd, N., & Sabonnadière, J.-C. (2013). Power Systems and Restructuring. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Riolo, R., Worzel, W. P., Kotanchek, M., & Kordon, A. (Eds.). (2016). Genetic Programming Theory and Practice XIII. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Smith, J. E. H. (2013). Heat, Action, Perception: Models of Living Beings in German Medical Cartesianism. In M. Dobre & T. Nyden (Eds.), Cartesian Empiricisms (pp. 105–123). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Design.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, July 12). The Quest For The World’s Hottest Chilli. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Technology Transfer: Constraints Perceived by Federal Laboratory and Agency Officials (No. RCED-88-116BR). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Skiold-Hanlin, S. (2015). Functional and Ecological Aspects of the Mucus Trails of the Freshwater Gastropod Elimia potosiensis (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D. (1996, March 3). Books in Brief: FICTION. New York Times, p. 718.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Haberland, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Haberland, 2013; Pienitz & Vincent, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pienitz & Vincent, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Wender, Kee, & Warrington, 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ceglarek et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Design
ISSN (print)1991-3761
ISSN (online)1994-036X

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