How to format your references using the International Journal of Design citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Design. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brenner, S. (2014). Retrospective. Frederick Sanger (1918-2013). Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6168), 262.
A journal article with 2 authors
DeLong, E. F., & Karl, D. M. (2005). Genomic perspectives in microbial oceanography. Nature, 437(7057), 336–342.
A journal article with 3 authors
Turner, G. C., Du, F., & Varshavsky, A. (2000). Peptides accelerate their uptake by activating a ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway. Nature, 405(6786), 579–583.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Folli, V., Ghofraniha, N., Puglisi, A., Leuzzi, L., & Conti, C. (2013). Time-resolved dynamics of granular matter by random laser emission. Scientific Reports, 3, 2251.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Piantadosi, S. (2005). Clinical Trials: A Methodologic Perspective. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rodríguez, R. E. (2013). Complex Analysis: In the Spirit of Lipman Bers (I. Kra & J. P. Gilman, Eds.; 2nd ed. 2013, Vol. 245). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhou, X., Liu, W., Li, Z., & Gao, W. (2014). A Continuous Virtual Vector-Based Algorithm for Measuring Cardinality Distribution. In X.-H. Sun, W. Qu, I. Stojmenovic, W. Zhou, Z. Li, H. Guo, G. Min, T. Yang, Y. Wu, & L. Liu (Eds.), Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing: 14th International Conference, ICA3PP 2014, Dalian, China, August 24-27, 2014. Proceedings, Part II (pp. 43–53). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Design.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, May 23). Chelyabinsk Meteorite Was The Result of Asteroid Collision. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education: Strategic Planning Needed to Better Manage Overlapping Programs across Multiple Agencies (GAO-12-108). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zanulabe Din, M. O. (2017). Engineered Synchrony of Bacterial Lysis and its Applications [Doctoral dissertation]. University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, April 22). Scouting Report. New York Times, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brenner, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Brenner, 2014; DeLong & Karl, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (DeLong & Karl, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Turner et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Folli et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Design
ISSN (print)1991-3761
ISSN (online)1994-036X

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