How to format your references using the Frontiers in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marris E. On high alert. Nature (2010) 466:S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roeb M, Sattler C. Chemistry. Isothermal water splitting. Science (2013) 341:470–471.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nazin GV, Qiu XH, Ho W. Visualization and spectroscopy of a metal-molecule-metal bridge. Science (2003) 302:77–81.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gao L, Song C, Gao Z, Barabási A-L, Bagrow JP, Wang D. Quantifying information flow during emergencies. Sci Rep (2014) 4:3997.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kölle W. Wasseranalysen - richtig beurteilt. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA (2009).
An edited book
Venkataraman K, Raghunathan C, Sivaperuman C eds. Ecology of Faunal Communities on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2012).
A chapter in an edited book
Bourgain J, Voiculescu D-V. “The Essential Centre of the mod a Diagonalization Ideal Commutant of an n-tuple of Commuting Hermitian Operators,” in Noncommutative Analysis, Operator Theory and Applications Operator Theory: Advances and Applications., eds. D. Alpay, F. Cipriani, F. Colombo, D. Guido, I. Sabadini, J.-L. Sauvageot (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 77–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew D. Blue Whale Interrupts Presenter’s Complaint About How Hard It Is To Find Blue Whales. IFLScience (2015) Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership and Partnerships Needed to Address Risk of Major Disruptions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1998).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Arab AA. Finite Element Modeling of Pretensioned Concrete Girders: A Methodological Approach with Applications in Large Strands and End Zone Cracking. (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx L. A Meeting That Couples Often Find Daunting. New York Times (2014)ST21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Medicine
AbbreviationFront. Med. (Lausanne)
ISSN (online)2296-858X

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