How to format your references using the Frontiers in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dolan RJ. Emotion, cognition, and behavior. Science (2002) 298:1191–1194.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kenyon SJ, Bromley BC. Stellar encounters as the origin of distant Solar System objects in highly eccentric orbits. Nature (2004) 432:598–602.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bhavsar AP, Guttman JA, Finlay BB. Manipulation of host-cell pathways by bacterial pathogens. Nature (2007) 449:827–834.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ueda M, Sako Y, Tanaka T, Devreotes P, Yanagida T. Single-molecule analysis of chemotactic signaling in Dictyostelium cells. Science (2001) 294:864–867.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vaccari DA, Strom PF, Alleman JE. Environmental Biology for Engineers and Scientists. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2005).
An edited book
Greenbaum E, Zhou D eds. Implantable Neural Prostheses 1: Devices and Applications. New York, NY: Springer US (2009). XIV, 376 p. 220 illus., 179 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Abadi M. “Logic in Access Control (Tutorial Notes).,” In: Aldini A, Barthe G, Gorrieri R, editors. Foundations of Security Analysis and Design V: FOSAD 2007/2008/2009 Tutorial Lectures. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2009). p. 145–165

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Smell Of Rain: How CSIRO Invented A New Word. IFLScience (2015)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Update of Economic Analysis of Impact Aid Program Reflecting the Educational Amendments of 1974. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1978).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ambaw Y. Promoting the well-being of black student athletes: A grant proposal. [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach (2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Mets and Marines Share a Day. New York Times (2010)B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Medicine
AbbreviationFront. Med. (Lausanne)
ISSN (online)2296-858X

Other styles