How to format your references using the Frontiers in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz D. Allow use of electronic cigarettes to assess risk. Nature (2014) 512:349.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boles LC, Lohmann KJ. True navigation and magnetic maps in spiny lobsters. Nature (2003) 421:60–63.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen L-Y, Redon S, Lingner J. The human CST complex is a terminator of telomerase activity. Nature (2012) 488:540–544.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Vöhringer-Martinez E, Hansmann B, Hernandez-Soto H, Hernandez H, Francisco JS, Troe J, Abel B. Water catalysis of a radical-molecule gas-phase reaction. Science (2007) 315:497–501.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chadha R, Kant L. Policy-Driven Mobile Ad hoc Network Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2007).
An edited book
Pham TD, Ichikawa K, Oyama-Higa M, Coomans D, Jiang X eds. Biomedical Informatics and Technology: First International Conference, ACBIT 2013, Aizu-Wakamatsu, Japan, September 16-17, 2013. Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2014).
A chapter in an edited book
Beauquier J, Blanchard P, Burman J. “Self-stabilizing Leader Election in Population Protocols over Arbitrary Communication Graphs,” in Principles of Distributed Systems: 17th International Conference, OPODIS 2013, Nice, France, December 16-18, 2013. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. R. Baldoni, N. Nisse, M. van Steen (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 38–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Medicine.

Blog post
Hale T. Three Dogs Had A Nasty Run-In With A Porcupine. IFLScience (2015) Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Northeast Rail Corridor: Information on Users, Funding Sources, and Expenditures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1996).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rendleman AJ. Energetics of Physiological Plasticity during Larval Development of the Sand Dollar, Dendraster Excentricus. (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
ROBERT KELLY; Robert Kelly is a poet who teaches literature, writing at Bard College. “I’D RATHER BE A GREAT BAD POET.” New York Times (1990)77.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Medicine
AbbreviationFront. Med. (Lausanne)
ISSN (online)2296-858X

Other styles