How to format your references using the Frontiers in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pain S. A potted history. Nature (2015) 525:S10-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goldenfeld N, Woese C. Biology’s next revolution. Nature (2007) 445:369.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kasen D, Röpke FK, Woosley SE. The diversity of type Ia supernovae from broken symmetries. Nature (2009) 460:869–872.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Schurger A, Pereira F, Treisman A, Cohen JD. Reproducibility distinguishes conscious from nonconscious neural representations. Science (2010) 327:97–99.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alexander M, Walkenbach J. Excel® Dashboards & Reports. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc. (2010).
An edited book
Denaro L, D’Avella D, Denaro V eds. Pitfalls in Cervical Spine Surgery: Avoidance and Management of Complications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2010).
A chapter in an edited book
Bertola P, Harfoush N, Vacca F. “Charting Interdisciplinary Innovation Programs: Map of Experiences,” in Creating Innovation Leaders: A Global Perspective Understanding Innovation., eds. B. Banerjee, S. Ceri (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 105–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientists Search For The Origins Of Alzheimer’s In Space. IFLScience (2015) Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Review of Selected Computer System Procurements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1980).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thompson AJ. Textiles as Indicators of Hopewellian Culture Burial Practices. (2003)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Landler M. Trump to a Grieving City: ‘This Is a Rough Time.’ New York Times (2017)A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Medicine
AbbreviationFront. Med. (Lausanne)
ISSN (online)2296-858X

Other styles