How to format your references using the Ultrasonics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ultrasonics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R.L. Kitching, Ecology. Crafting the pieces of the diversity jigsaw puzzle, Science. 313 (2006) 1055–1057.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Galarreta, S. Hestrin, Spike transmission and synchrony detection in networks of GABAergic interneurons, Science. 292 (2001) 2295–2299.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Jacobson, S. Liberati, D. Mattingly, A strong astrophysical constraint on the violation of special relativity by quantum gravity, Nature. 424 (2003) 1019–1021.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H.D. Rowland, W.P. King, J.B. Pethica, G.L.W. Cross, Molecular confinement accelerates deformation of entangled polymers during squeeze flow, Science. 322 (2008) 720–724.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E.-A. Kracke, K. Lodde, Leitfaden Straßenbrücken, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2011.
An edited book
J. Getz, Hilbert Modular Forms with Coefficients in Intersection Homology and Quadratic Base Change, Springer, Basel, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Olivas, F. Valdez, O. Castillo, A Comparative Study of Membership Functions for an Interval Type-2 Fuzzy System used to Dynamic Parameter Adaptation in Particle Swarm Optimization, in: O. Castillo, P. Melin, W. Pedrycz, J. Kacprzyk (Eds.), Recent Advances on Hybrid Approaches for Designing Intelligent Systems, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 67–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ultrasonics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, What Happened To The Oil From The Deepwater Horizon Spill? ‘Marine Snow’ Provides A Clue, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, No Child Left Behind Act: Education’s Data Improvement Efforts Could Strengthen the Basis for Distributing Title III Funds, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Kotch, Unduly harsh and unworkably rigid: The death penalty in North Carolina, 1910–1961, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.K. (nyt), World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Apartment Toll At 58, New York Times. (2004) A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleUltrasonics
ISSN (print)0041-624X
ScopeAcoustics and Ultrasonics

Other styles