How to format your references using the Ultrasonics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ultrasonics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H.E. Stanley, Freezing by heating, Nature. 404 (2000) 718–719.
A journal article with 2 authors
E.B. Watson, T.M. Harrison, Zircon thermometer reveals minimum melting conditions on earliest Earth, Science. 308 (2005) 841–844.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.A. Bluestone, K. Herold, G. Eisenbarth, Genetics, pathogenesis and clinical interventions in type 1 diabetes, Nature. 464 (2010) 1293–1300.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Sharghi-Namini, E. Tan, L.-L.S. Ong, R. Ge, H.H. Asada, Dll4-containing exosomes induce capillary sprout retraction in a 3D microenvironment, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4031.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. Kobilinsky, T.F. Liotti, J. Oeser-Sweat, DNA: Forensic and Legal Applications, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2004.
An edited book
M.C. Simon, ed., Diverse Effects of Hypoxia on Tumor Progression, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Zhou, C. Wen, Multivariable Adaptive Control, in: C. Wen (Ed.), Adaptive Backstepping Control of Uncertain Systems: Nonsmooth Nonlinearities, Interactions or Time-Variations, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008: pp. 51–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ultrasonics.

Blog post
T. Hale, This Could Be The Last Chance To Save The World’s Smallest Porpoise From Extinction, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, [Comments on FAA Employee’s Claim for Real Estate Expenses], U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.S. Selph, Origins of Music Programs in Liberal Arts Institutions: The Story of Three Florida Catholic Universities, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Widdicombe, Charming for a Cause, New York Times. (2017) D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleUltrasonics
ISSN (print)0041-624X
ScopeAcoustics and Ultrasonics

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