How to format your references using the Climate of the Past Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Climate of the Past Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Petley, D. N.: Geophysics. Characterizing giant landslides, Science, 339, 1395–1396, 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miller, T. M. and Cleveland, D. W.: Medicine. Treating neurodegenerative diseases with antibiotics, Science, 307, 361–362, 2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ghaffari, H. O., Nasseri, M. H. B., and Young, R. P.: Faulting of rocks in a three-dimensional stress field by micro-anticracks, Sci. Rep., 4, 5011, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Kaur, G., Pickrell, G., Kimsawatde, G., Homa, D., Allbee, H. A., and Sriranganathan, N.: Synthesis, cytotoxicity, and hydroxyapatite formation in 27-Tris-SBF for sol-gel based CaO-P2O5-SiO2-B2O3-ZnO bioactive glasses, Sci. Rep., 4, 4392, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zecchina, A. and Califano, S.: The Development of Catalysis, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2017.
An edited book
Brunst, H., Müller, M. S., Nagel, W. E., and Resch, M. M. (Eds.): Tools for High Performance Computing 2011: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Parallel Tools for High Performance Computing, September 2011, ZIH, Dresden, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XVI, 156 p pp., 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
De Weerdt, D., Pinchuk, R., Aked, R., de Orus, J.-J., and Fontaine, B.: TopiMaker - An Implementation of a Novel Topic Maps Visualization, in: Leveraging the Semantics of Topic Maps: Second International Conference on Topic Maps Research and Applications, TMRA 2006, Leipzig, Germany, October 11-12, 2006, Revised Selected Papers, edited by: Maicher, L., Sigel, A., and Garshol, L. M., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 32–43, 2007.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Climate of the Past Discussions.

Blog post
What’s Inside A Red Giant?, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Interscholastic Athletics: School Districts Provide Some Assistance to Uninsured Student Athletes, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mantilla, A. N.: The differences in the educational experiences and caregiver involvement in education between youth in foster care and those in care of their biological parents, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartman, S.: A Subway Singer in the Spotlight, New York Times, 18th September, MB1, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Petley, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Petley, 2013; Miller and Cleveland, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Miller and Cleveland, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Kaur et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleClimate of the Past Discussions
AbbreviationClim. Past Discuss.
ISSN (online)1814-9359
Global and Planetary Change

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