How to format your references using the Climate of the Past Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Climate of the Past Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zaanen, J.: Quantum critical electron systems: the uncharted sign worlds, Science, 319, 1205–1207, 2008.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bergmann, O. and Frisén, J.: Neuroscience. Why adults need new brain cells, Science, 340, 695–696, 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wellman, C. H., Osterloff, P. L., and Mohiuddin, U.: Fragments of the earliest land plants, Nature, 425, 282–285, 2003.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Kadokura, H., Tian, H., Zander, T., Bardwell, J. C. A., and Beckwith, J.: Snapshots of DsbA in action: detection of proteins in the process of oxidative folding, Science, 303, 534–537, 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brook, M. V.: Ultrasonic Inspection Technology Development and Search Unit Design, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
Li, S.: Advances in Soft Matter Mechanics, edited by: Sun, B., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XIV, 298 p pp., 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Salomon, D. and Motta, G.: Robust VL Codes, in: Handbook of Data Compression, edited by: Motta, G., Springer, London, 177–209, 2010.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Climate of the Past Discussions.

Blog post
How Sound Can Be Used To Levitate Objects:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Polar Weather Satellites: NOAA Is Working to Ensure Continuity but Needs to Quickly Address Information Security Weaknesses and Future Program Uncertainties, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Taylor, T. E.: Characterizing EGFRvIII-independent glioblastoma maintenance, Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Weiser, B. and Walsh, M. W.: Ramapo Official Charged in Securities Fraud Case, New York Times, 15th April, A23, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zaanen, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Zaanen, 2008; Bergmann and Frisén, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bergmann and Frisén, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Kadokura et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleClimate of the Past Discussions
AbbreviationClim. Past Discuss.
ISSN (online)1814-9359
Global and Planetary Change

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