How to format your references using the Climate of the Past Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Climate of the Past Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brumfiel, G.: Physicists doubt that “corking” could help baseball’s big hitter, Nature, 423(6941), 674, 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
García-Bellido, D. C. and Collins, D. H.: Moulting arthropod caught in the act, Nature, 429(6987), 40, 2004.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schaedler, T. A., Jacobsen, A. J. and Carter, W. B.: Materials science. Toward lighter, stiffer materials, Science, 341(6151), 1181–1182, 2013.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Han, B. W., Herrin, B. R., Cooper, M. D. and Wilson, I. A.: Antigen recognition by variable lymphocyte receptors, Science, 321(5897), 1834–1837, 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kitajima, M.: Memory and Action Selection in Human-Machine Interaction, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 2016.
An edited book
El-Deiry, W. S., Ed.: Impact of Genetic Targets on Cancer Therapy, Springer, New York, NY., 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Lepisto, E.: Azerbaijan, in The Education Systems of Europe, edited by W. Hörner, H. Döbert, L. R. Reuter, and B. von Kopp, pp. 61–76, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Climate of the Past Discussions.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J.: Red Dwarf Planets Might Not Be That Habitable After All, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Information Technology: FDA Has Taken Steps to Address Challenges but Needs a Comprehensive Strategic Plan, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Al khuwaildi, H. A.: Green techniques in the healthcare system, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA., 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J.: Brought Together by a Fight With Cancer and a Love of Baseball, New York Times, 16th June, D2, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brumfiel, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Brumfiel, 2003; García-Bellido and Collins, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (García-Bellido and Collins, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Han et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleClimate of the Past Discussions
AbbreviationClim. Past Discuss.
ISSN (online)1814-9359
Global and Planetary Change

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