How to format your references using the Climate of the Past Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Climate of the Past Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maureille, B.: A lost Neanderthal neonate found, Nature, 419, 33–34, 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sercombe, T. B. and Schaffer, G. B.: Rapid manufacturing of aluminum components, Science, 301, 1225–1227, 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Boos, D., Yekezare, M., and Diffley, J. F. X.: Identification of a heteromeric complex that promotes DNA replication origin firing in human cells, Science, 340, 981–984, 2013.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Angers, R. C., Browning, S. R., Seward, T. S., Sigurdson, C. J., Miller, M. W., Hoover, E. A., and Telling, G. C.: Prions in skeletal muscles of deer with chronic wasting disease, Science, 311, 1117, 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fabozzi, F. J. and Kothari, V.: Introduction to Securitization, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2008.
An edited book
Telman, D. A. J. (Ed.): Hans Kelsen in America - Selective Affinities and the Mysteries of Academic Influence, Springer International Publishing, Cham, X, 368 p pp., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Amesbury, R.: The virtues of belief: toward a non-evidentialist ethics of belief-formation, in: Ethics of Belief: Essays in Tribute to D.Z. Phillips, edited by: Long, E. T. and Horn, P., Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 25–37, 2008.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Climate of the Past Discussions.

Blog post
The Actual Building Blocks of Planets Have Been Spotted for the First Time Ever:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Commercial Trucking: Safety Concerns About Mexican Trucks Remain Even as Inspection Activity Increases, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fresolone, C.: The pedagogical use of Gerald Near’s “Chantworks,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Winerip, M., Schwirtz, M., and Robbins, T.: New York State Taking on Union of Prison Guards, New York Times, 11th April, A1, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maureille, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Maureille, 2002; Sercombe and Schaffer, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sercombe and Schaffer, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Angers et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleClimate of the Past Discussions
AbbreviationClim. Past Discuss.
ISSN (online)1814-9359
Global and Planetary Change

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