How to format your references using the Journal of Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Virology (JVI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vinge V. 2006. 2020 computing: the creativity machine. Nature 440:411.
A journal article with 2 authors
Debenedetti PG, Stillinger FH. 2001. Supercooled liquids and the glass transition. Nature 410:259–267.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reber M, Burrola P, Lemke G. 2004. A relative signalling model for the formation of a topographic neural map. Nature 431:847–853.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Getz G, Höfling H, Mesirov JP, Golub TR, Meyerson M, Tibshirani R, Lander ES. 2007. Comment on “The consensus coding sequences of human breast and colorectal cancers.” Science 317:1500.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Castillo E, Cobo A, Jubete F, Pruneda RE. 1999. Orthogonal Sets and Polar Methods in Linear Algebra. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
2011. Application Management: Challenges – Service Creation – Strategies. Gabler, Wiesbaden.
A chapter in an edited book
Takada T, Nakamura M, Yamana K. 2016. DNA-Assisted Multichromophore Assembly, p. 101–121. In Nakatani, K, Tor, Y (eds.), Modified Nucleic Acids. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Virology.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. Overcoming The Social Barriers To Climate Consensus. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Aviation Services: Automation and Consolidation of Flight Service Stations. RCED-88-77. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fortenbery NR. 2012. Regulation of Natural Killer Cells: SHIP-1, 2B4, and Immunomodulation by Lenalidomide. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Gustines GG. 2017. Weak Sales Doom Black Panther Spinoff. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Virology
AbbreviationJ. Virol.
ISSN (print)0022-538X
ISSN (online)1098-5514
ScopeInsect Science

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