How to format your references using the Journal of Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Virology (JVI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dolgin E. 2015. Textiles: Fabrics of life. Nature 519:S10-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Enquist BJ, Niklas KJ. 2001. Invariant scaling relations across tree-dominated communities. Nature 410:655–660.
A journal article with 3 authors
Roselló-Díez A, Ros MA, Torres M. 2011. Diffusible signals, not autonomous mechanisms, determine the main proximodistal limb subdivision. Science 332:1086–1088.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Komura Y, Tamura R, Uwano T, Nishijo H, Kaga K, Ono T. 2001. Retrospective and prospective coding for predicted reward in the sensory thalamus. Nature 412:546–549.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Köhler A, Bässler H. 2015. Electronic Processes in Organic Semiconductors. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
2007. Automated Deduction in Geometry: 6th International Workshop, ADG 2006, Pontevedra, Spain, August 31-September 2, 2006. Revised Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Wu B, Sy SKB, Derendorf H. 2014. Principles of Applied Pharmacokinetic–Pharmacodynamic Modeling, p. 63–79. In Vinks, AA, Derendorf, H, Mouton, JW (eds.), Fundamentals of Antimicrobial Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Virology.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. Hubble In Pictures: Astronomers’ Top Picks. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Space Station: Information on National Security Applications and Cost. NSIAD-93-208. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hintz L. 2015. Fighting for Us, Inside and Out: National Identity Contestation and Foreign Policy in Turkey. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. 2013. An E.V. That Wraps Around a Wheelchair. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Virology
AbbreviationJ. Virol.
ISSN (print)0022-538X
ISSN (online)1098-5514
ScopeInsect Science

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