How to format your references using the Journal of Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Virology (JVI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Victor P. 2010. Questioning economic growth. Nature 468:370–371.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clements DH, Sarama J. 2011. Early childhood mathematics intervention. Science 333:968–970.
A journal article with 3 authors
Panáková D, Werdich AA, Macrae CA. 2010. Wnt11 patterns a myocardial electrical gradient through regulation of the L-type Ca(2+) channel. Nature 466:874–878.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wolfe-Simon F, Switzer Blum J, Kulp TR, Gordon GW, Hoeft SE, Pett-Ridge J, Stolz JF, Webb SM, Weber PK, Davies PCW, Anbar AD, Oremland RS. 2011. A bacterium that can grow by using arsenic instead of phosphorus. Science 332:1163–1166.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gu X, Jiang N, Ji K, Li H, Qiu X, Li W, Ji X, Du H, Sheng B, Huang H. 2017. Self-healing Control Technology for Distribution Networks. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
2010. Tree Rings and Natural Hazards: A State-of-Art. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Sun CT, Tsai J. 2010. Dynamic Compressive Strengths of Polymeric Composites: Testing and Modeling, p. 107–129. In Shukla, A, Ravichandran, G, Rajapakse, YDS (eds.), Dynamic Failure of Materials and Structures. Springer US, Boston, MA.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Virology.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. Scientists Reveal How Our Circadian Clocks Are Reset. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1985. Review of Two Proposed Automatic Data Processing Procurements by the Social Security Administration. IMTEC-85-7. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mark M. 2017. A peer mentorship program for youth transitioning out of foster care: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO. 2015. An Early Admirer of ‘Star Wars.’ New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Virology
AbbreviationJ. Virol.
ISSN (print)0022-538X
ISSN (online)1098-5514
ScopeInsect Science

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