How to format your references using the Journal of Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Virology (JVI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCarty JG. 2000. Durable catalysts for cleaner air. Nature 403:35–36.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wyithe JSB, Loeb A. 2004. A characteristic size of approximately 10 Mpc for the ionized bubbles at the end of cosmic reionization. Nature 432:194–196.
A journal article with 3 authors
Horváth J, Szalai I, De Kepper P. 2009. An experimental design method leading to chemical Turing patterns. Science 324:772–775.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zubieta JK, Smith YR, Bueller JA, Xu Y, Kilbourn MR, Jewett DM, Meyer CR, Koeppe RA, Stohler CS. 2001. Regional mu opioid receptor regulation of sensory and affective dimensions of pain. Science 293:311–315.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Black R. 2016. Pragmatic Software Testing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana.
An edited book
Kudo T. 2016. Practical Pharmacology for Alzheimer’s Disease1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Gaertner SL, Dovidio JF. 2008. Addressing Contemporary Racism: The Common Ingroup Identity Model, p. 111–133. In Willis-Esqueda, C (ed.), Motivational Aspects of Prejudice and Racism. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Virology.

Blog post
Carpineti A. 2016. Earth’s Core Is Two Years Younger Than Its Crust Thanks To Relativity. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Safe and Drug-Free Schools: Balancing Accountability With State and Local Flexibility. HEHS-98-3. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Desam JR. 2017. Effective Nodal Placement in Overlay Networks Using Complexity Theory. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E. 1998. Teaching Doctors Sensitivity On the Most Sensitive of Exams. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Virology
AbbreviationJ. Virol.
ISSN (print)0022-538X
ISSN (online)1098-5514
ScopeInsect Science

Other styles