How to format your references using the Journal of Virological Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Virological Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Callaway, E., 2007. Dogs help sniff out genes. Nature 449, 514.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bednarek, P., Osbourn, A., 2009. Plant-microbe interactions: chemical diversity in plant defense. Science 324, 746–748.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cheianov, V.V., Fal’ko, V., Altshuler, B.L., 2007. The focusing of electron flow and a Veselago lens in graphene p-n junctions. Science 315, 1252–1255.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fogassi, L., Ferrari, P.F., Gesierich, B., Rozzi, S., Chersi, F., Rizzolatti, G., 2005. Parietal lobe: from action organization to intention understanding. Science 308, 662–667.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sailor, M.J., 2011. Porous Silicon in Practice. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Libal, K.R., 2015. Human Rights-Based Community Practice in the United States, SpringerBriefs in Rights-Based Approaches to Social Work. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Anđić, A., Chae, J., Park, H., Yang, H., Ahn, K., Cao, W., Park, Y.D., 2015. Connection Between Chromospheric Events and Photospheric Dynamics, in: Chae, Jongchul (Ed.), Initial Results from the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS). Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 55–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Virological Methods.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2015. 5 Science Facts Jurrassic World Totally Ignored [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. Mass Transit: Significant Federal Investment Is Not Adequately Protected (No. T-RCED-91-68). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ghafoori, E., 2014. Wavelet transform and neural network (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M.D., 2017. President Questions Clinton Ties To Russia. New York Times A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boss, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Fergany, 2006; Gershon, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bednarek and Osbourn, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Moss et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Virological Methods
AbbreviationJ. Virol. Methods
ISSN (print)0166-0934

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