How to format your references using the Journal of Virological Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Virological Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Malakoff, D., 2000. NUCLEAR ESPIONAGE: Report Details Spying on Touring Scientists. Science 288, 2300–2301.
A journal article with 2 authors
Santos, M.E., Salzburger, W., 2012. Evolution. How cichlids diversify. Science 338, 619–621.
A journal article with 3 authors
Naya, Y., Yoshida, M., Miyashita, Y., 2001. Backward spreading of memory-retrieval signal in the primate temporal cortex. Science 291, 661–664.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Su, C.-Y., Luo, D.-G., Terakita, A., Shichida, Y., Liao, H.-W., Kazmi, M.A., Sakmar, T.P., Yau, K.-W., 2006. Parietal-eye phototransduction components and their potential evolutionary implications. Science 311, 1617–1621.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rizzi, T.E., Valenciano, A., Bowles, M., Cowell, R., Tyler, R., DeNicola, D.B., 2017. Atlas of Canine and Feline Urinalysis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Morton, K., 2013. Pro Oracle SQL, Second Edition. ed. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Piper, A.J., Hollier, C.A., 2015. Nocturnal Noninvasive Ventilation in Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome, in: Basner, R.C., Parthasarathy, S. (Eds.), Nocturnal Non-Invasive Ventilation: Theory, Evidence, and Clinical Practice. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 83–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Virological Methods.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Simpler, Smaller, Cheaper? Alternatives To Britain’s New Nuclear Power Plant [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Competition: Issues on Establishing and Using Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (No. NSIAD-88-22). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green, D.J., 2010. Shoulder functional anatomy and development – Implications for interpreting early hominin locomotion (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2016. Star Catcher’s Rejection of the Indians Paved the Way for Game 1’s Offensive Hero. New York Times B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Malakoff, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Malakoff, 2000; Santos and Salzburger, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Santos and Salzburger, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Su et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Virological Methods
AbbreviationJ. Virol. Methods
ISSN (print)0166-0934

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