How to format your references using the Journal of Virological Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Virological Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sukhdev, P., 2012. Sustainability: The corporate climate overhaul. Nature 486, 27–28.
A journal article with 2 authors
Davidson, D.J., Andrews, J., 2013. Ecology. Not all about consumption. Science 339, 1286–1287.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vukusic, P., Sambles, J.R., Lawrence, C.R., 2000. Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly. Nature 404, 457.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Avdoshenko, S.M., Koskinen, P., Sevinçli, H., Popov, A.A., Rocha, C.G., 2013. Topological signatures in the electronic structure of graphene spirals. Sci. Rep. 3, 1632.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tran, J., 2010. The Vietnam War and Theologies of Memory. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Fiadeiro, J.L., Schobbens, P.-Y. (Eds.), 2007. Recent Trends in Algebraic Development Techniques: 18th International Workshop, WADT 2006, La Roche en Ardenne, Belgium, June 1-3, 2006, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Depaulis, F., Mousset, S., Veuille, M., 2005. Detecting Selective Sweeps with Haplotype Tests, in: Nurminsky, D. (Ed.), Selective Sweep, Molecular Biology Intelligence Unit. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 34–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Virological Methods.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Whole-Body Imaging Reveals AIDS Virus’ Hiding Spots [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2012. Highway Projects: Survey of State Departments of Transportation (GAO-12-637SP, June 2012), an E-supplement to GAO-12-593 (No. GAO-12-637SP). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Denno, D., 2010. Multiple paths to first grade: A comparison of child, parent, and early education variables associated with multiple year kindergarten experiences (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2010. Suddenly, San Francisco’s a Baseball Town. New York Times B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sukhdev, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Davidson and Andrews, 2013; Sukhdev, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Davidson and Andrews, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Avdoshenko et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Virological Methods
AbbreviationJ. Virol. Methods
ISSN (print)0166-0934

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