How to format your references using the Journal of Virological Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Virological Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stanley, G.D., Jr, 2006. Ecology. Photosymbiosis and the evolution of modern coral reefs. Science 312, 857–858.
A journal article with 2 authors
Falkowski, P.G., Davis, C.S., 2004. Natural proportions. Nature 431, 131.
A journal article with 3 authors
Boulé, J.-B., Vega, L.R., Zakian, V.A., 2005. The yeast Pif1p helicase removes telomerase from telomeric DNA. Nature 438, 57–61.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Goyenvalle, A., Vulin, A., Fougerousse, F., Leturcq, F., Kaplan, J.-C., Garcia, L., Danos, O., 2004. Rescue of dystrophic muscle through U7 snRNA-mediated exon skipping. Science 306, 1796–1799.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adhikari, S., 2013. Structural Dynamic Analysis with Generalized Damping Models. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, USA.
An edited book
Petersen, F., Amstutz, R. (Eds.), 2008. Natural Compounds as Drugs: Volume II, Progress in Drug Research. Birkhäuser, Basel.
A chapter in an edited book
Namata, G.M., Sharara, H., Getoor, L., 2010. A Survey of Link Mining Tasks for Analyzing Noisy and Incomplete Networks, in: Yu, P.S., Han, J., Faloutsos, C. (Eds.), Link Mining: Models, Algorithms, and Applications. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 107–133.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Virological Methods.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2017. Galapagos Giant Tortoises Make A Comeback, Thanks To Innovative Conservation Strategies [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Health Information Technology: HHS Is Taking Steps to Develop a National Strategy (No. GAO-05-628). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sontag, M., 2006. Emotion and the Labeling Process (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cox, R., Hay, G., 2011. When Numbers Eclipse Message. New York Times B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stanley, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Falkowski and Davis, 2004; Stanley, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Falkowski and Davis, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Goyenvalle et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Virological Methods
AbbreviationJ. Virol. Methods
ISSN (print)0166-0934

Other styles