How to format your references using the Journal of Forensic Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Forensic Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sheeran J. Preventing hunger: sustainability not aid. Nature 2011;479(7374):469–70.
A journal article with 2 authors
Panning M, Romanowicz B. Inferences on flow at the base of Earth’s mantle based on seismic anisotropy. Science 2004;303(5656):351–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Paul JW, West JP, Gitler AD. Cell Biology. Clogging information flow in ALS. Science 2014;345(6201):1118–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tang YL, Zhu YL, Wang YJ, Wang WY, Xu YB, Ren WJ, et al. Atomic-scale mapping of dipole frustration at 90° charged domain walls in ferroelectric PbTiO3 films. Sci Rep 2014;4:4115.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yoder CH, Leber PA, Thomsen MW. The Bridge to Organic Chemistry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
Sheng QZ, Wang G, Jensen CS, Xu G, editors. Web Technologies and Applications: 14th Asia-Pacific Web Conference, APWeb 2012, Kunming, China, April 11-13, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Dietrich K, Winter J, Luzhnica G, Podesser S. Implementation Aspects of Anonymous Credential Systems for Mobile Trusted Platforms. In: Decker BD, Lapon J, Naessens V, Uhl A, editors. Communications and Multimedia Security: 12th IFIP TC 6 / TC 11 International Conference, CMS 2011, Ghent, Belgium, October 19-21,2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011;45–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Forensic Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew E. Dispersants Sprayed In Wake Of Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill More Toxic Than Oil Alone. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Research: FAA Could Enhance Its Program to Meet Current and Future Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gramajo GG. Guidance control of small UAV with energy and maneuverability limitations for a search and coverage mission. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S. Personal Ways of Untangling the Political. New York Times. 2014;:WE10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Forensic Sciences
AbbreviationJ. Forensic Sci.
ISSN (print)0022-1198
ISSN (online)1556-4029
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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