How to format your references using the Journal of Forensic Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Forensic Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Schiermeier Q. Deep-sea sub aims to get to the bottom of a muddy issue. Nature 2003;423(6939):469.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Prakash M, Gershenfeld N. Microfluidic bubble logic. Science 2007;315(5813):832–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Amselem E, Sadiq M, Bourennane M. Experimental bound entanglement through a Pauli channel. Sci Rep 2013;3:1966.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Ohtsuki H, Hauert C, Lieberman E, Nowak MA. A simple rule for the evolution of cooperation on graphs and social networks. Nature 2006;441(7092):502–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Bi J. Sensory Discrimination Tests and Measurements. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2015.
An edited book
1.
Abdul-Rahman A. Spatial Data Modelling for 3D GIS. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Jen W, Chang W, Chou S. Cybercrime in Taiwan – An Analysis of Suspect Records. In: Chen H, Wang F-Y, Yang CC, Zeng D, Chau M, Chang K, editors. Intelligence and Security Informatics: International Workshop, WISI 2006, Singapore, April 9, 2006. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006;38–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Forensic Sciences.

Blog post
1.
Carpineti A. Observatory Snaps Most Detailed Image Of A Galaxy From The Ground. IFLScience. 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/space/observatory-snaps-most-detailed-image-of-a-galaxy-from-the-ground/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: TSA Should Limit Future Funding for Behavior Detection Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Wang T. Talking to Strangers: Chinese Youth and Social Media. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Protess B, Goldstein M, Corkery M. Wells Fargo Subpoenaed in Inquiry of Accounts. New York Times. 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Forensic Sciences
AbbreviationJ. Forensic Sci.
ISSN (print)0022-1198
ISSN (online)1556-4029
ScopeGenetics
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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