How to format your references using the Journal of Forensic Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Forensic Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Feagin R. Journal club. A coastal ecologist sees the hidden effects of hurricanes. Nature 2009;461(7262):319.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bradshaw WE, Holzapfel CM. Climate change. Evolutionary response to rapid climate change. Science 2006;312(5779):1477–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee MG, Park HS, Hwang HS. Detection of a large-scale structure of intracluster globular clusters in the Virgo cluster. Science 2010;328(5976):334–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nakano R, Takanashi T, Surlykke A, Skals N, Ishikawa Y. Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths. Sci Rep 2013;3:2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cherniakov M. An Introduction to Parametric Digital Filters and Oscillators. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2003;
An edited book
Bank R, Holst M, Widlund O, Xu J, editors. Domain Decomposition Methods in Science and Engineering XX. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013;
A chapter in an edited book
Venstermans K, Eeckhout L, De Bosschere K. Object-Relative Addressing: Compressed Pointers in 64-Bit Java Virtual Machines. In: Ernst E, editor. ECOOP 2007 – Object-Oriented Programming: 21st European Conference, Berlin, Germany, July 30 - August 3, 2007. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007; 79–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Forensic Sciences.

Blog post
Andrews R. Jurassic Monster Is Largest Meat-Eating Dinosaur Found In Germany. IFLScience. 2016;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Development of New Security Technology Has Not Met Expectations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1994;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chavez G. Creating Integrated, Inquiry Science Lessons Based on Early Childhood Science Activities. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; There They Go Again: Clinton and Gore Climb Back on Bus for a 3-Day Trip. New York Times. 1992;A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Forensic Sciences
AbbreviationJ. Forensic Sci.
ISSN (print)0022-1198
ISSN (online)1556-4029
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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