How to format your references using the Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lovett RA. Olympic talent. Nature. 2007 Jul 5;448(7149):104.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huynh KD, Lee JT. Inheritance of a pre-inactivated paternal X chromosome in early mouse embryos. Nature. 2003 Dec 18;426(6968):857–62.
A journal article with 3 authors
Woodroffe R, Hedges S, Durant SM. Ecology. To fence or not to fence. Science. 2014 Apr 4;344(6179):46–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mellman DL, Gonzales ML, Song C, Barlow CA, Wang P, Kendziorski C, et al. A PtdIns4,5P2-regulated nuclear poly(A) polymerase controls expression of select mRNAs. Nature. 2008 Feb 21;451(7181):1013–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ciana P. New Frontiers in Technical Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Bombardieri E, Gianni L, Bonadonna G, editors. Breast Cancer: Nuclear Medicine in Diagnosis and Therapeutic Options. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. XIV, 299 p. 156 illus., 56 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Zeinalipour-Yazti D, Kalogeraki V, Gunopulos D, Mitra A, Banerjee A, Najjar W. Towards In-Situ Data Storage in Sensor Databases. In: Bozanis P, Houstis EN, editors. Advances in Informatics: 10th Panhellenic Conference on Informatics, PCI 2005, Volas, Greece, November 11-13, 2005 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. p. 36–46. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

Blog post
Carpineti A. CERN Just Released 300 Terabytes Worth Of Data To The Public [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Strategic Mobility: Serious Problems Remain in U.S. Deployment Capabilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Apr. Report No.: T-NSIAD-94-165.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dhah S. The relationship between job-embedded professional development and special education teacher self-efficacy in hard-to-staff middle schools [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Skating With a Smile, No Matter What. New York Times. 2014 Feb 18;B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Vet. Intern. Med.
ISSN (print)0891-6640
ISSN (online)1939-1676
ScopeGeneral Veterinary

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