How to format your references using the Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check E. BSE in human tissues fires debate on patient disclosure. Nature. 2002 Sep 26;419(6905):326.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lahn BT, Ebenstein L. Let’s celebrate human genetic diversity. Nature. 2009 Oct 8;461(7265):726–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Prokopenko AA, Karabanov EB, Williams DF. Age of long sediment cores from Lake Baikal. Nature. 2002 Feb 28;415(6875):976.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Agaisse H, Burrack LS, Philips JA, Rubin EJ, Perrimon N, Higgins DE. Genome-wide RNAi screen for host factors required for intracellular bacterial infection. Science. 2005 Aug 19;309(5738):1248–51.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Talbot DB. Frequency Acquisition Techniques for Phase Locked Loops. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Stoltenberg SF, editor. Genes and the Motivation to Use Substances. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. IX, 144 p. 21 illus., 9 illus. in color. (Nebraska Symposium on Motivation; vol. 61).
A chapter in an edited book
Xu K, Terakawa S. Biochemical Studies on Myelin of the Nervous System. In: Terakawa S, editor. Myelinated Fibers and Saltatory Conduction in the Shrimp: The Fastest Impulse Conduction in the Animal Kingdom. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2013. p. 31–4.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Diver Nearly Gets Swallowed By Whale [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA’s Effort to Modernize the System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Apr. Report No.: RCED-90-146FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Butts P. Green Roof Vegetable Production in Three Different Growth Media [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. Brooklyn Gets a Superhero (and a Few Villains). New York Times. 2016 Apr 24;MB4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Vet. Intern. Med.
ISSN (print)0891-6640
ISSN (online)1939-1676
ScopeGeneral Veterinary

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