How to format your references using the Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Feringa BL. Chemistry. A new twist on chirality. Science. 2001 Jun 15;292(5524):2021–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sajish M, Schimmel P. A human tRNA synthetase is a potent PARP1-activating effector target for resveratrol. Nature. 2015 Mar 19;519(7543):370–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xue S, Calvin K, Li H. RNA recognition and cleavage by a splicing endonuclease. Science. 2006 May 12;312(5775):906–10.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sachs C, Hildebrand M, Volkening S, Wintterlin J, Ertl G. Spatiotemporal self-organization in a surface reaction: from the atomic to the mesoscopic scale. Science. 2001 Aug 31;293(5535):1635–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fernando A, Worrall ST, Ekmekcioǧlu E. 3DTV. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Charbonneau P. Solar and Stellar Dynamos: Saas-Fee Advanced Course 39 Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. Steiner O, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. XVI, 240 p. (Saas-Fee Advanced Courses; vol. 39).
A chapter in an edited book
Khoshnevisan D, Schilling R. On the Markov Property. In: Schilling R, Utzet F, Quer-Sardanyons L, editors. From Lévy-Type Processes to Parabolic SPDEs. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 27–33. (Advanced Courses in Mathematics - CRM Barcelona).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. What Happens When You Throw Liquid Nitrogen and Dry Ice in a Pool? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Times and Space: An Interview With Michael Collins. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Jan. Report No.: 137888.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yuan S. Aberrations of anamorphic optical systems [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dorman JL. How the Writer Cathy Salustri Found ‘Old Flordia.’ New York Times. 2017 Jan 12;TR2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Vet. Intern. Med.
ISSN (print)0891-6640
ISSN (online)1939-1676
ScopeGeneral Veterinary

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