How to format your references using the Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Medlyn BE. Comment on “Drought-induced reduction in global terrestrial net primary production from 2000 through 2009.” Science. 2011 Aug 26;333(6046):1093; author reply 1093.
A journal article with 2 authors
Barron AB, Brown MJF. Science journalism: Let’s talk about sex. Nature. 2012 Aug 9;488(7410):151–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oldroyd GED, Harrison MJ, Paszkowski U. Reprogramming plant cells for endosymbiosis. Science. 2009 May 8;324(5928):753–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
De Wilde Y, Formanek F, Carminati R, Gralak B, Lemoine P-A, Joulain K, et al. Thermal radiation scanning tunnelling microscopy. Nature. 2006 Dec 7;444(7120):740–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu S-C, Delbruck T, Indiveri G, Whatley A, Douglas R. Event-Based Neuromorphic Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Catarci T, Ferro N, Poggi A, editors. Bridging Between Cultural Heritage Institutions: 9th Italian Research Conference, IRCDL 2013, Rome, Italy, January 31–February 1, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. XI, 199 p. 45 illus. (Communications in Computer and Information Science; vol. 385).
A chapter in an edited book
Rotondi A, Pedroni P, Pievatolo A. Calcolo delle probabilità per più variabili. In: Pedroni P, Pievatolo A, editors. Probabilità, Statistica e Simulazione: Programmi applicativi scritti con Scilab. Milano: Springer; 2012. p. 117–48. (Battaglia F, Carota C, Conti PL, Piccinato L, Riani M, editors. UNITEXT).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Curiosity Catches A Whiff Of Methane On Mars – And A Possibility Of Past Life. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Security: Efforts to Strengthen Aviation and Surface Transportation Security are Under Way, but Challenges Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Oct. Report No.: GAO-08-140T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lucas WA. Dynamics of Food Consumption in a Q’eqchi’ Maya Community [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B. Dozens Said To Be Killed In Bombing Of ISIS Prison. New York Times. 2017 Jun 27;A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Vet. Intern. Med.
ISSN (print)0891-6640
ISSN (online)1939-1676
ScopeGeneral Veterinary

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