How to format your references using the Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smyty R. Beauty is ova-rated. Nature. 2000 Mar 2;404(6773):31.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaiser D, Moreno J. Dual-use research: Self-censorship is not enough. Nature. 2012 Dec 20;492(7429):345–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alford RA, Dixon PM, Pechmann JH. Ecology. Global amphibian population declines. Nature. 2001 Aug 2;412(6846):499–500.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Giraud A, Matic I, Tenaillon O, Clara A, Radman M, Fons M, et al. Costs and benefits of high mutation rates: adaptive evolution of bacteria in the mouse gut. Science. 2001 Mar 30;291(5513):2606–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kulinkovich OG. Cyclopropanes in Organic Synthesis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Foulkes WD, Cooney KA, editors. Male Reproductive Cancers: Epidemiology, Pathology and Genetics. New York, NY: Springer; 2010. XIV, 346 p. 23 illus., 5 illus. in color. (Cancer Genetics).
A chapter in an edited book
Lindquist S, Allendoerfer KL. Simple Cellular Solutions to Complex Problems. In: George-Hyslop PHS, Mobley WCC, Christen Y, editors. Intracellular Traffic and Neurodegenerative Disorders. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 41–57. (Research and Perspectives in Alzheimer’s Disease).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Why Is This Comet Shaped Like A Duck? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. International Aviation: New Competitive Conditions Require Changes in DOT Strategy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 May. Report No.: T-RCED-94-194.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Madigan JP. Regulation of localization and function of the Rho family small GTPase, Rnd3 [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. For HBO, Storm Clouds Gather Over What Should Be a Smashing Summer. New York Times. 2017 Aug 14;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Vet. Intern. Med.
ISSN (print)0891-6640
ISSN (online)1939-1676
ScopeGeneral Veterinary

Other styles