How to format your references using the Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America (FSC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Whorton M. Structural biology: Calcium-activated proteins visualized. Nature 2014;516(7530):176–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hyman AH., Simons K. The new cell biology: Beyond HeLa cells. Nature 2011;480(7375):34.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hu Y., Lee CC., Ribbe MW. Extending the carbon chain: hydrocarbon formation catalyzed by vanadium/molybdenum nitrogenases. Science 2011;333(6043):753–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pfander B., Moldovan G-L., Sacher M., Hoege C., Jentsch S. SUMO-modified PCNA recruits Srs2 to prevent recombination during S phase. Nature 2005;436(7049):428–33.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Noar J. Interceptive Orthodontics. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Roth R., Frost EAM., Gevirtz C., Atcheson CLH. The Role of Anesthesiology in Global Health: A Comprehensive Guide. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Ciurea ML., Iancu V. Quantum Confinement in Nanometric Structures. In: Baleanu D, Guvenc ZB, and Machado JAT, editors. New Trends in Nanotechnology and Fractional Calculus Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010. p. 57–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America.

Blog post
Hale T. There Could Be Some Big Cybersecurity Issues With “Pokémon Go.” IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Bridge Program: Clearer Goals and Performance Measures Needed for a More Focused and Sustainable Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ton N-Q. A hierarchical wireless network architecture for building automation and control systems: Implementation and simulation study. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly DA. When in Doubt, Insure. New York Times 2010:TR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleFacial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
AbbreviationFacial Plast. Surg. Clin. North Am.
ISSN (print)1064-7406
ISSN (online)1558-1926

Other styles