How to format your references using the Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America (FSC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Owens B. Obesity: heavy sleepers. Nature 2013;497(7450):S8-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pan H., Chen B. Ultra-flexibility and unusual electronic, magnetic and chemical properties of waved graphenes and nanoribbons. Sci Rep 2014;4:4198.
A journal article with 3 authors
Winn JN., Rusin D., Kochanek CS. The central image of a gravitationally lensed quasar. Nature 2004;427(6975):613–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cam HP., Noma K-I., Ebina H., Levin HL., Grewal SIS. Host genome surveillance for retrotransposons by transposon-derived proteins. Nature 2008;451(7177):431–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sofronas A. Analytical Troubleshooting of Process Machinery and Pressure Vessels. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Ramanathan AL., Bhattacharya P., Dittmar T., Prasad MBK., Neupane BR. Management and Sustainable Development of Coastal Zone Environments. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Frank R., Münster J., Schulze J., Liston A., Klimpel S. Macroparasites of Microchiroptera: Bat Ectoparasites of Central and South America. In: Klimpel S, and Mehlhorn H, editors. Bats (Chiroptera) as Vectors of Diseases and Parasites: Facts and Myths. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 87–130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America.

Blog post
Davis J. Harmless Snake Found To Physically Alter Its Eyes To Mimic Deadly Viper. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Hourly Fees Paid by Various Federal Agencies to Private Attorneys for Legal Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bigelow RW. Perception of Online Legal Education among Recently Retired Law School Faculty. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. Soccer at Haverford: More Than a Game. New York Times 2002:D7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleFacial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
AbbreviationFacial Plast. Surg. Clin. North Am.
ISSN (print)1064-7406
ISSN (online)1558-1926

Other styles