How to format your references using the Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation (JVDI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hamilton C. No, we should not just “at least do the research.” Nature 2013;496:139.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sato M, Sievers AJ. Direct observation of the discrete character of intrinsic localized modes in an antiferromagnet. Nature 2004;432:486–488.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koo B, et al. Intellectual property. Plants and intellectual property: an international appraisal. Science 2004;306:1295–1297.
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Steinmetz EJ, et al. RNA-binding protein Nrd1 directs poly(A)-independent 3’-end formation of RNA polymerase II transcripts. Nature 2001;413:327–331.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tanwir S, Perros H. VBR Video Traffic Models. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
Páez A, et al., eds. Progress in Spatial Analysis: Methods and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010: 1-XXVIII, 492 p. 104 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
Battle-Baptiste W. Sweepin’ Spirits: Power and Transformation on the Plantation Landscape. In: Baugher S, Spencer-Wood SM, eds. Archaeology and Preservation of Gendered Landscapes. New York, NY: Springer, 2010:81–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.

Blog post
Andrew E. Baby Raccoon Climbs Tree With A Lot Of Help From Its Mom [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015.[cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Small Business Innovation Research Program Shows Success But Can Be Strengthened. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Porter LA. Defense Support of Civilian Authorities (DSCA): What emergency managers need to know. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hogan S. How I Found Love and Companionship Online. New York Times. 2013;:ST12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,5,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
AbbreviationJ. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
ISSN (print)1040-6387
ISSN (online)1943-4936
ScopeGeneral Veterinary

Other styles