How to format your references using the Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation (JVDI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler A. ASIAN-AMERICAN SCIENTISTS: New Breed of Protester Asks: Why Not Us? Science 2000;290:1075.
A journal article with 2 authors
Erwin DH, Krakauer DC. Evolution. Insights into innovation. Science 2004;304:1117–1119.
A journal article with 3 authors
Evans WJ, et al. Molecular octa-uranium rings with alternating nitride and azide bridges. Science 2005;309:1835–1838.
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Stenman JM, et al. Canonical Wnt signaling regulates organ-specific assembly and differentiation of CNS vasculature. Science 2008;322:1247–1250.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Teodorescu PP, et al. Distribution Theory. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2013.
An edited book
Kim WH, Cheon JH, eds. Atlas of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2015: 1-X, 228 p. 254 illus., 217 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Prabhu VS, et al. The Thermal Characterisation of a Disc Brake Rotor at Reduced Scale with Particular Reference to Pad Aspect Ratio. In: Andreescu C, Clenci A, eds. Proceedings of the European Automotive Congress EAEC-ESFA 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016:51–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. This Beautiful Image Shows Black Holes In The Distant Universe [Internet]. IFLScience. 2017.[cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Research Centers Supported by NSF. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Burke K. Big Five personality traits and astrology: The relationship between the Moon variable and the NEO PI-R. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart JB. For Tax Reform Lessons, Congress Needn’t Look Far. New York Times. 2017;:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 3,4.
This sentence cites four references 3,5,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
AbbreviationJ. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
ISSN (print)1040-6387
ISSN (online)1943-4936
ScopeGeneral Veterinary

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