# How to format your references using the Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation (JVDI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

## Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

## Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Kontos T. Quantum physics: single electrons take the bus. Nature 2011;477:414.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Ransohoff RM, Cardona AE. The myeloid cells of the central nervous system parenchyma. Nature 2010;468:253–262.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Lorsch JR, et al. Cell Biology. Fixing problems with cell lines. Science 2014;346:1452–1453.
A journal article with 3 or more authors
1
Temple LK, et al. Essays on science and society. Defining disease in the genomics era. Science 2001;293:807–808.

## Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Wootton RJ, Smith C. Reproductive Biology of Teleost Fishes. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
1
Larson LE, et al., eds. Digital Communications Using Chaos and Nonlinear Dynamics. New York, NY: Springer, 2006: 1-XIV, 382 p. 196 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Wang G, et al. $$H_\infty$$ Control. In: Zhang Q, Yan X, eds. Analysis and Design of Singular Markovian Jump Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015:111–159.

## Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.

Blog post
1
Andrew E. NASA Scientists Create Biodegradable Fungus Drone [Internet]. IFLScience. 2014.[cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/technology/nasa-scientists-create-biodegradable-fungus-drone/.

## Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Financial Literacy and Education Commission: Further Progress Needed to Ensure an Effective National Strategy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2007.

## Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Martinez JC. Theoretically tested remediation in response to insect resistance to Bt corn and Bt cotton: A new paradigm. 2015.

## News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Photographs by GEORGE ETHEREDGE for THE NEW YORK TIMES. Early Spring Flowers. New York Times. 2017;:RE10.

## In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,5,6,8.