How to format your references using the Annual Review of Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annual Review of Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Guston DH. 2008. Innovation policy: not just a jumbo shrimp. Nature. 454(7207):940–41
A journal article with 2 authors
Eccleston A, Skipper M. 2009. Transcribing the genome. Nature. 461(7261):185
A journal article with 3 authors
Durniak KJ, Bailey S, Steitz TA. 2008. The structure of a transcribing T7 RNA polymerase in transition from initiation to elongation. Science. 322(5901):553–57
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pravdo SH, Feigelson ED, Garmire G, Maeda Y, Tsuboi Y, Bally J. 2001. Discovery of X-rays from the protostellar outflow object HH2. Nature. 413(6857):708–11

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Verdu J. 2012. Oxidative Ageing of Polymers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
D’hooghe M, Ha H-J, eds. 2016. Synthesis of 4- to 7-membered Heterocycles by Ring Expansion: Aza-, oxa- and thiaheterocyclic small-ring systems, Vol. 41. Cham: Springer International Publishing. XI, 367 p. 150 illus., 2 illus. in color p. 1st ed. 2016 ed.
A chapter in an edited book
Kruger K, Basson A. 2015. Implementation of an Erlang-Based Resource Holon for a Holonic Manufacturing Cell. In Service Orientation in Holonic and Multi-agent Manufacturing, ed T Borangiu, A Thomas, D Trentesaux, pp. 49–58. Cham: Springer International Publishing

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annual Review of Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. Insect Diet May Have Led To Bigger Human Brains. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Transportation Research: Opportunities for Improving the Oversight of DOT’s Research Programs and User Satisfaction with Transportation Statistics. GAO-06-917, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kolb JN. 2015. What’s professional development got to do with it? The value of lesson study in implementing the common core standards for mathematical practices. Doctoral dissertation thesis. California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J. 2017. Roaming the Woods, Imagining Gunfire on a Cold War Base. New York Times, Sep. 24, p. A21

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (3, 4).
This sentence cites four references (4–6, 8).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnual Review of Microbiology
AbbreviationAnnu. Rev. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0066-4227
ISSN (online)1545-3251

Other styles