How to format your references using the Annual Review of Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annual Review of Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mayer ML. 2006. Glutamate receptors at atomic resolution. Nature. 440(7083):456–62
A journal article with 2 authors
Boesz C, Lloyd N. 2008. Collaborations: investigating international misconduct. Nature. 452(7188):686–87
A journal article with 3 authors
Finkel T, Serrano M, Blasco MA. 2007. The common biology of cancer and ageing. Nature. 448(7155):767–74
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yasmin L, Chen X, Stubbs KA, Raston CL. 2013. Optimising a vortex fluidic device for controlling chemical reactivity and selectivity. Sci. Rep. 3:2282

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sox HC, Higgins MC, Owens DK. 2013. Medical Decision Making. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
An edited book
Kaneda Y, ed. 2008. IUTAM Symposium on Computational Physics and New Perspectives in Turbulence: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on Computational Physics and New Perspectives in Turbulence, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan, September, 11-14, 2006, Vol. 4. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. XIV, 450 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Johnson MP, Hollander JB, Whiteman ED. 2015. Data and Analytics for Neighborhood Development: Smart Shrinkage Decision Modeling in Baltimore, Maryland. In Planning Support Systems and Smart Cities, ed S Geertman, J Ferreira Jr, R Goodspeed, J Stillwell, pp. 61–76. Cham: Springer International Publishing

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annual Review of Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrews R. 2015. Vast Magma Chambers Detected Beneath Mount St. Helens. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. DOD Business Transformation: Improved Management Oversight of Business System Modernization Efforts Needed. GAO-11-53, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reyes J. 2009. Connections: A grant proposal for mothers struggling with substance abuse in the child welfare system. Doctoral dissertation thesis. California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. 2008. Imagining a Place Where Cheers Never End. New York Times, Aug. 10, p. CY6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (3, 4).
This sentence cites four references (3, 5, 6, 8).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnual Review of Microbiology
AbbreviationAnnu. Rev. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0066-4227
ISSN (online)1545-3251

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