How to format your references using the Annual Review of Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annual Review of Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pirrotta V. 2003. Transcription. Puffing with PARP. Science. 299(5606):528–29
A journal article with 2 authors
Saul J, Vinnik L. 2003. Earth science: Mantle deformation or processing artefact? Nature. 422(6928):136; discussion 136
A journal article with 3 authors
Mori MX, Erickson MG, Yue DT. 2004. Functional stoichiometry and local enrichment of calmodulin interacting with Ca2+ channels. Science. 304(5669):432–35
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jiang YJ, Aerne BL, Smithers L, Haddon C, Ish-Horowicz D, Lewis J. 2000. Notch signalling and the synchronization of the somite segmentation clock. Nature. 408(6811):475–79

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nappi E, Peskov V. 2013. Imaging Gaseous Detectors and Their Applications. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA
An edited book
Liu L, Zhu Q, Cheng L, Wang Y, Zhao D, eds. 2014. Applied Methods and Techniques for Mechatronic Systems: Modelling, Identification and Control, Vol. 452. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. XV, 440 p. 251 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhou Y, Evans D. 2011. Protecting Private Web Content from Embedded Scripts. In Computer Security – ESORICS 2011: 16th European Symposium on Research in Computer Security, Leuven, Belgium, September 12-14,2011. Proceedings, ed V Atluri, C Diaz, pp. 60–79. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annual Review of Microbiology.

Blog post
Hale T. 2016. A Tree Species Thought To Be Extinct Has Been Found In The Queen’s Garden. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Test and Evaluation: DOD Has Been Slow In Improving Testing of Software-Intensive Systems. NSIAD-93-198, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chavez TM. 2008. A quasi-experimental study of the relationship between school structure and student outcomes. Doctoral dissertation thesis. University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. 2000. Lose One, Win One. New York Times, Sep. 8, p. D5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2, 4).
This sentence cites four references (5–8).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnual Review of Microbiology
AbbreviationAnnu. Rev. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0066-4227
ISSN (online)1545-3251

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