How to format your references using the Annual Review of Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annual Review of Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pardoll DM. 2001. Immunology. Stress, NK receptors, and immune surveillance. Science. 294(5542):534–36
A journal article with 2 authors
Margolis D, Bushman F. 2014. HIV/AIDS. Persistence by proliferation? Science. 345(6193):143–44
A journal article with 3 authors
Royle NJ, Russell AF, Wilson AJ. 2014. The evolution of flexible parenting. Science. 345(6198):776–81
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tard C, Liu X, Ibrahim SK, Bruschi M, De Gioia L, et al. 2005. Synthesis of the H-cluster framework of iron-only hydrogenase. Nature. 433(7026):610–13

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marroni L, Perdomo I. 2013. Pricing and Hedging Financial Derivatives. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd
An edited book
Heij C. 2007. Introduction to Mathematical Systems Theory: Linear Systems, Identification and Control. Basel: Birkhäuser. IX, 166 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Li X, Gao S. 2012. Effects of Sea Surface Temperature. In Precipitation Modeling and Quantitative Analysis, ed S Gao, pp. 111–24. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annual Review of Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. Icy Plumes Bursting From Saturn’s Moon Enceladus Suggest It Could Harbour Life. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. Digital Television Transition: Broadcasters’ Transition Status, Low-Power Station Issues, and Information on Consumer Awareness of the DTV Transition. GAO-08-881T, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Seitz AE. 2015. Epidemiology, Spatial Distribution, and Treatment Patterns of Blastomycosis in the United States. Doctoral dissertation thesis. George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ratliff B. 2017. At Home in Her Range. New York Times, Jan. 13, p. BR17

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (3, 4).
This sentence cites four references (3, 4, 6, 8).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnual Review of Microbiology
AbbreviationAnnu. Rev. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0066-4227
ISSN (online)1545-3251

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