How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T. Sandholm, “Computer science. Solving imperfect-information games,” Science 347(6218), 122–123 (2015).
A journal article with 2 authors
N. C. Eddingsaas and K. S. Suslick, “Mechanoluminescence: light from sonication of crystal slurries,” Nature 444(7116), 163 (2006).
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Joachim, J. K. Gimzewski, and A. Aviram, “Electronics using hybrid-molecular and mono-molecular devices,” Nature 408(6812), 541–548 (2000).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. S. Shah et al., “Motile cilia of human airway epithelia are chemosensory,” Science 325(5944), 1131–1134 (2009).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Bleistein, Rapid Organizational Change, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2017).
An edited book
W. S. Adney et al., Eds., Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals: Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals Held April 29–May 2, 2007, in Denver, Colorado, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ (2008).
A chapter in an edited book
M. J. Simoff, “Quality Control Mechanism for Endoscopic Procedures,” in Principles and Practice of Interventional Pulmonology, A. Ernst and F. J. F. Herth, Eds., pp. 49–62, Springer, New York, NY (2013).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Imaging.

Blog post
S. Luntz, “Alien-Looking Insect Has Its Own Order,” IFLScience, 26 January 2017 (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Reimbursable Space Act Agreements: NASA Generally Adhering to Fair Reimbursement Controls, but Guidance on Waived Cost Justifications Needs Refinement,” GAO-11-553R, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2011).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. M. Moro, “School Improvement Grants at Work: A Study of Urban, Public New England Schools,” Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University (2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
D. E. Slotnik, “Pete Flynn, 79; Kept Mets’ 3 Fields Trim,” in New York Times, p. B15 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Imaging
AbbreviationJ. Med. Imaging (Bellingham)
ISSN (print)2329-4302
ISSN (online)2329-4310

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