How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Cully, “Public health: The politics of antibiotics,” Nature 509(7498), S16-7 (2014).
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Herbst and A. Mas, “Peer effects on worker output in the laboratory generalize to the field,” Science 350(6260), 545–549 (2015).
A journal article with 3 authors
H. C. Fricke, J. Hencecroth, and M. E. Hoerner, “Lowland-upland migration of sauropod dinosaurs during the Late Jurassic epoch,” Nature 480(7378), 513–515 (2011).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Adachi et al., “Diffusive separation of the lower atmosphere,” Science 311(5766), 1429 (2006).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K. Nguyen, X. Guo, and Y. Pan, Multiple Biological Sequence Alignment: Scoring Functions, Algorithms and Applications, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2016).
An edited book
D. Schomburg, I. Schomburg, and A. Chang, Eds., Class 2 · Transferases IV: EC -, Second Edition, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2006).
A chapter in an edited book
Y. Wang, J. Y.-J. Shyy, and S. Chien, “Fluorescence Live-Cell Imaging: Principles and Applications in Mechanobiology,” in Bioengineering in Cell and Tissue Research, G. M. Artmann and S. Chien, Eds., pp. 65–84, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2008).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Imaging.

Blog post
D. Andrew, “There Are Bright Spots Among The World’s Coral Reefs – The Challenge Is To Learn From Them,” IFLScience, 25 July 2016, <> (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Federal Family Education Loan Program: Statutory and Regulatory Changes Could Avert Billions in Unnecessary Federal Subsidy Payments,” GAO-04-1070, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2004).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K. Hernandez, “Life skills education for at-risk youth at Soledad Enrichment Action Charter High School: A grant proposal,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach (2015).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
D. W. Chen, “Safety Citations and Anonymous Deaths,” in New York Times, p. A1 (2015).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Imaging
AbbreviationJ. Med. Imaging (Bellingham)
ISSN (print)2329-4302
ISSN (online)2329-4310

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