How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
W. L. Jorgensen, “The many roles of computation in drug discovery,” Science 303(5665), 1813–1818 (2004).
A journal article with 2 authors
D. C. Parkes and M. P. Wellman, “Economic reasoning and artificial intelligence,” Science 349(6245), 267–272 (2015).
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Leone, P. F. Ferrari, and E. Palagi, “Different yawns, different functions? Testing social hypotheses on spontaneous yawning in Theropithecus gelada,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4010 (2014).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. S. M. Müller et al., “Genome organization and DNA accessibility control antigenic variation in trypanosomes,” Nature 563(7729), 121–125 (2018).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Collins, Magic in the Ancient Greek World, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK (2008).
An edited book
K. Tuyls et al., Eds., Knowledge Discovery and Emergent Complexity in Bioinformatics: First International Workshop, KDECB 2006, Ghent, Belgium, May 10, 2006. Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007).
A chapter in an edited book
M. P. H. Wolff, “Banach Spaces and Linear Operators,” in Nonstandard Analysis for the Working Mathematician, P. A. Loeb and M. P. H. Wolff, Eds., pp. 107–162, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2015).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Imaging.

Blog post
T. Hale, “Students Launch Rocket With A 3D-Printed Engine,” IFLScience, 26 May 2016, <> (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “NASA Budget: Carryover Balances for Selected Programs,” NSIAD-96-206, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1996).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. E. Beck, “Examining the relationship between self-initiated expatriation and cross-cultural adjustment among expatriate spouses within nonprofit organizations: A quantitative causal-comparative study,” Doctoral dissertation, Capella University (2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, “A Script, or Woods’s Road to Recovery?,” in New York Times, p. B18 (2010).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Imaging
AbbreviationJ. Med. Imaging (Bellingham)
ISSN (print)2329-4302
ISSN (online)2329-4310

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