How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Otsuki and H. Matsukawa, “Systematic breakdown of Amontons’ law of friction for an elastic object locally obeying Amontons’ law,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1586 (2013).
A journal article with 3 authors
J. N. Reynolds, B. I. Hyland, and J. R. Wickens, “A cellular mechanism of reward-related learning,” Nature 413(6851), 67–70 (2001).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. A. Rahman et al., “HnRNP L and hnRNP LL antagonistically modulate PTB-mediated splicing suppression of CHRNA1 pre-mRNA,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2931 (2013).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. A. Wiens, Ecological Challenges and Conservation Conundrums, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2016).
An edited book
S. C. Mukhopadhyay, K. P. Jayasundera, and A. Fuchs, Eds., Advancement in Sensing Technology: New Developments and Practical Applications, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013).
A chapter in an edited book
H. Bart, M. A. Kaashoek, and A. C. M. Ran, “Explicit solutions using realizations,” in A State Space Approach to Canonical Factorization with Applications, M. A. Kaashoek and A. C. M. Ran, Eds., pp. 37–56, Birkhäuser, Basel (2010).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Imaging.

Blog post
R. Andrews, “Archeologists Find Ancient Human Engravings From The End Of The Ice Age,” IFLScience, 3 November 2015, <> (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Biosurveillance: Observations on the Cancellation of BioWatch Gen-3 and Future Considerations for the Program,” GAO-14-267T, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2014).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Y. Ku, “Dealing with historical issues in Japan and Germany: Ruling coalitions, transnational activism, and conservative reaction,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University (2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Kelly, “Clinton Said to Consider Sending Troops to Bosnia,” in New York Times, p. A6 (1993).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Imaging
AbbreviationJ. Med. Imaging (Bellingham)
ISSN (print)2329-4302
ISSN (online)2329-4310

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