How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. J. Druker, “Janet Rowley (1925-2013),” Nature 505(7484), 484 (2014).
A journal article with 2 authors
I. C. Scott and D. Y. R. Stainier, “Development. Fishing out a new heart,” Science 298(5601), 2141–2142 (2002).
A journal article with 3 authors
S. J. Carpenter, J. M. Erickson, and F. D. Holland Jr, “Migration of a Late Cretaceous fish,” Nature 423(6935), 70–74 (2003).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Hayashi et al., “Light-induced conversion of an insulating refractory oxide into a persistent electronic conductor,” Nature 419(6906), 462–465 (2002).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Weinstein, The Complete Guide to Fundraising Management, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2009).
An edited book
J. K. Jue, Ed., Heaven upon earth, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2006).
A chapter in an edited book
P. Germanakos and M. Belk, “Personalization Categories and Adaptation Technologies,” in Human-Centred Web Adaptation and Personalization: From Theory to Practice, M. Belk, Ed., pp. 103–135, Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Imaging.

Blog post
J. Davis, “Al Gore Tells IFLScience, When It Comes To Climate Change, ‘We Will Win,’” IFLScience, 6 December 2016 (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Deaf Education: Improved Oversight Needed for National Technical Institute for the Deaf,” HRD-94-23, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1993).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T. M. Morissette, “Elder friendliness and social participation of older adults living within age-segregated retirement communities,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach (2009).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, “Justices Weighing Narcotics Policy Against Needs of a Church,” in New York Times, p. A26 (2005).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Imaging
AbbreviationJ. Med. Imaging (Bellingham)
ISSN (print)2329-4302
ISSN (online)2329-4310

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