How to format your references using the Journal of Universal Computer Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Universal Computer Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[Dang, 2014] Dang, C. V.: ‘Gene regulation: fine-tuned amplification in cells’; Nature, 511, 7510 (2014), 417–418.
A journal article with 2 authors
[Pedraza and van Oudenaarden, 2005] Pedraza, J. M., van Oudenaarden, A.: ‘Noise propagation in gene networks’; Science (New York, N.Y.), 307, 5717 (2005), 1965–1969.
A journal article with 3 authors
[Huffard et al., 2005] Huffard, C. L., Boneka, F., Full, R. J.: ‘Underwater bipedal locomotion by octopuses in disguise’; Science (New York, N.Y.), 307, 5717 (2005), 1927.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
[Wang et al., 2004] Wang, H., Wang, L., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Vidal, M., Tempst, P., Jones, R. S., Zhang, Y.: ‘Role of histone H2A ubiquitination in Polycomb silencing’; Nature, 431, 7010 (2004), 873–878.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[Shook, 2010] Shook, J. R.: ‘The God Debates’; Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell (2010).
An edited book
[Cooper and Sather-Wagstaff, 2014] Connections Between Algebra, Combinatorics, and Geometry: (Vol. 76). New York, NY: Springer (2014).
A chapter in an edited book
[Connor, 2011] Connor, R.: ‘The Contribution of Diagnostic Imaging in Rare Gynaecological Malignancies’; In N. Reed, J. A. Green, D. M. Gershenson, N. Siddiqui & R. Connor (Eds.), Rare and Uncommon Gynecological Cancers: A Clinical Guide. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2011), 15–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Universal Computer Science.

Blog post
[Evans, 2017] Evans, K.: ‘Rescuers Battle To Save Remaining Whales After Hundreds Die In Huge Mass Stranding’; (2017, February 10). Retrieved 30 October 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[Government Accountability Office, 1980] Government Accountability Office: ‘H.R. 7178, the Research and Development Authorization Estimates Act’ (No. 112490);. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1980).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[Britt, 2012] Britt, C. A.: ‘Dying in America: A historical analysis of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia’ (Doctoral dissertation); California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA (2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[Crow, 2002] Crow, K.: ‘Two Old Buildings Win Friends in High Places’; New York Times (2002, November 3), 147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Universal Computer Science
AbbreviationJ. Univers. Comput. Sci.
ISSN (print)0948-695x
ISSN (online)0948-6968
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Theoretical Computer Science

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