How to format your references using the Journal of Universal Computer Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Universal Computer Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[Highfield, 2000] Highfield, R.: ‘ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: Selling Science to the Public’; Science (New York, N.Y.), 289, 5476 (2000), 59.
A journal article with 2 authors
[Foster and Ratnieks, 2000] Foster, K. R., Ratnieks, F. L.: ‘Facultative worker policing in a wasp’; Nature, 407, 6805 (2000), 692–693.
A journal article with 3 authors
[Meierbachtol et al., 2013] Meierbachtol, T., Harper, J., Humphrey, N.: ‘Basal drainage system response to increasing surface melt on the Greenland ice sheet’; Science (New York, N.Y.), 341, 6147 (2013), 777–779.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
[Fischler et al., 2007] Fischler, W., Kong, P., Marella, S., Scott, K.: ‘The detection of carbonation by the Drosophila gustatory system’; Nature, 448, 7157 (2007), 1054–1057.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[Ancheyta, 2016] Ancheyta, J.: ‘Deactivation of Heavy Oil Hydroprocessing Catalysts’; Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2016).
An edited book
[Aberdein and Dove, 2013] The Argument of Mathematics: (Vol. 30). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands (2013).
A chapter in an edited book
[Capano et al., 2016] Capano, G., Regini, M., Turri, M.: ‘Autonomy and Funding: The Reforms of the Late 1980s to the Mid-1990s’; In M. Regini & M. Turri (Eds.), Changing Governance in Universities: Italian Higher Education in Comparative Perspective. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK (2016), 65–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Universal Computer Science.

Blog post
[Luntz, 2016] Luntz, S.: ‘Wedge-Tailed Eagles Keep Attacking A Mining Company’s Drones’; (2016, November 18). Retrieved 30 October 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[Government Accountability Office, 2002] Government Accountability Office: ‘DOD Overseas Schools: Compensation Adequate for Recruiting and Retaining Well-Qualified Teachers’ (No. GAO-03-19); Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (2002).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[Smith, 2010] Smith, K. A.: ‘Impact of animal assisted therapy reading instruction on reading performance of homeschooled students’ (Doctoral dissertation); Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ (2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[Clarey, 2017] Clarey, C.: ‘American Contingent’s Strength Is in Numbers, and Youth’; New York Times (2017, January 18), B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Universal Computer Science
AbbreviationJ. Univers. Comput. Sci.
ISSN (print)0948-695x
ISSN (online)0948-6968
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Theoretical Computer Science

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