How to format your references using the Journal of Universal Computer Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Universal Computer Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[Gaudet, 2015] Gaudet, A.: ‘A grad school survival guide’; Science (New York, N.Y.), 347, 6228 (2015), 1386.
A journal article with 2 authors
[Stevens and Feingold, 2009] Stevens, B., Feingold, G.: ‘Untangling aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation in a buffered system’; Nature, 461, 7264 (2009), 607–613.
A journal article with 3 authors
[Causier et al., 2002] Causier, B., Kieffer, M., Davies, B.: ‘Plant biology. MADS-box genes reach maturity’; Science (New York, N.Y.), 296, 5566 (2002), 275–276.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
[Regan et al., 2004] Regan, B. C., Aloni, S., Ritchie, R. O., Dahmen, U., Zettl, A.: ‘Carbon nanotubes as nanoscale mass conveyors’; Nature, 428, 6986 (2004), 924–927.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[Ghez, 2005] Ghez, R.: ‘A Primer of Diffusion Problems’; Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA (2005).
An edited book
[Lee et al., 2015] Student Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong: Theory, Intervention and Research: (1st ed. 2016, Vol. 7). Singapore: Springer (2015).
A chapter in an edited book
[Mershin et al., 2006] Mershin, A., Sanabria, H., Miller, J. H., Nawarathna, D., Skoulakis, E. M. C., Mavromatos, N. E., et al.: ‘Towards Experimental Tests of Quantum Effects in Cytoskeletal Proteins’; In J. A. Tuszynski (Ed.), The Emerging Physics of Consciousness. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2006), 95–170.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Universal Computer Science.

Blog post
[Andrew, 2015] Andrew, E.: ‘Plasma Fire Tornado Appears On The Sun’; (2015, September 10). Retrieved 30 October 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[Government Accountability Office, 2013] Government Accountability Office: ‘Cargo Tank Trucks: Improved Incident Data and Regulatory Analysis Would Better Inform Decisions about Safety Risks’ (No. GAO-13-721); Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (2013).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[Cope, 2015] Cope, J. A.: ‘Coastal squeeze of vegetation zones in the Los Cerritos Wetlands: The effect of sea level rise’ (Doctoral dissertation); California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA (2015).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[Kishkovsky, 2004] Kishkovsky, S.: ‘The Region, a Primer’; New York Times (2004, September 4), A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Universal Computer Science
AbbreviationJ. Univers. Comput. Sci.
ISSN (print)0948-695x
ISSN (online)0948-6968
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles