How to format your references using the Journal of Universal Computer Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Universal Computer Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[Haber 2006] Haber, J. E.: ‘Comment on ‘Cell type regulates selective segregation of mouse chromosome 7 DNA strands in mitosis’’; Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 313, No. 5790 (2006), pp. 1045; author reply 1045.
A journal article with 2 authors
[Wohlers and Wood 2015] Wohlers, A., Wood, B. J.: ‘A Mercury-like component of early Earth yields uranium in the core and high mantle (142)Nd’; Nature, Vol. 520, No. 7547 (2015), pp. 337–340.
A journal article with 3 authors
[Van Horn, Watts and Holekamp 2008] Van Horn, R. C., Watts, H. E., Holekamp, K. E.: ‘Do female hyaenas choose mates based on tenure?’; Nature, Vol. 454, No. 7201 (2008), pp. E1; discussion E2.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
[Singh, Srivastava, Kalaiarasan, Manvati, Chopra and Bamezai 2014] Singh, R. K., Srivastava, A., Kalaiarasan, P., Manvati, S., Chopra, R., Bamezai, R. N. K.: ‘mtDNA germ line variation mediated ROS generates retrograde signaling and induces pro-cancerous metabolic features’; Scientific Reports, Vol. 4 (2014), p. 6571.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[Habart-Corlosquet, Janssen and Manca 2013] Habart-Corlosquet, M., Janssen, J., Manca, R.: ‘VaR Methodology for Non-Gaussian Finance’; Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2013).
An edited book
[Hassanien, Tolba and Taher Azar 2014] Advanced Machine Learning Technologies and Applications: Second International Conference, AMLTA 2014, Cairo, Egypt, November 28-30, 2014. Proceedings: (Vol. 488). Cham: Springer International Publishing (2014).
A chapter in an edited book
[Kung 2016] Kung, L. Y.: ‘The Umbrella Movement and Kairos: The Church’s Theological Encounter with a Political Movement’; In J. K. H. Tse & J. Y. Tan (Eds.), Theological Reflections on the Hong Kong Umbrella Movement. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US (2016), pp. 107–129.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Universal Computer Science.

Blog post
[Davis 2016] Davis, J.: ‘Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Created A ‘Dirty Blizzard’ That Lasted Months’; (2016, June 1). Retrieved 30 October 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[Government Accountability Office 1993] Government Accountability Office: ‘Amtrak Safety: Amtrak Should Implement Minimum Safety Standards for Passenger Cars’ (No. RCED-93-196); Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1993).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[Dias 2014] Dias, J.: ‘Factors associated with poor oral health among older adults’ (Doctoral dissertation); California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA (2014).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[Cooper 2017] Cooper, M.: ‘Come Hell or High Water’; New York Times (2017, July 7), p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Universal Computer Science
AbbreviationJ. Univers. Comput. Sci.
ISSN (print)0948-695x
ISSN (online)0948-6968
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Theoretical Computer Science

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