How to format your references using the Journal of Universal Computer Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Universal Computer Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[Richmond, 2000] Richmond, C. R.: ‘How neptunium led to the birth of plutonium’; Nature, 406, 6795 (2000), 455.
A journal article with 2 authors
[Brovkin and Claussen, 2008] Brovkin, V., Claussen, M.: ‘Comment on ‘Climate-driven ecosystem succession in the Sahara: the past 6000 years’’; Science (New York, N.Y.), 322, 5906 (2008), 1326; author reply 1326.
A journal article with 3 authors
[Sánchez-Villagra et al., 2003] Sánchez-Villagra, M. R., Aguilera, O., Horovitz, I.: ‘The anatomy of the world’s largest extinct rodent’; Science (New York, N.Y.), 301, 5640 (2003), 1708–1710.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
[Hu et al., 2014] Hu, J., Wang, D., Li, J., Jing, G., Ning, K., Xu, J.: ‘Genome-wide identification of transcription factors and transcription-factor binding sites in oleaginous microalgae Nannochloropsis’; Scientific Reports, 4 (2014), 5454.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[Esmailzadeh, 2006] Esmailzadeh, R.: ‘Broadband Wireless Communications Business’; Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd (2006).
An edited book
[Xie, 2012] Xie, H.: ‘Atomic Force Microscopy Based Nanorobotics: Modelling, Simulation, Setup Building and Experiments’; (C. Onal, S. Régnier & M. Sitti, Eds.) (Vol. 71). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2012).
A chapter in an edited book
[Wang et al., 2015] Wang, X. A., Ma, J., Yang, X., Wei, Y.: ‘Security Analysis of Two Identity Based Proxy Re-encryption Schemes in Multi-user Networks’; In N. T. Nguyen, R. Kowalczyk & F. Xhafa (Eds.), Transactions on Computational Collective Intelligence XIX. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2015), 69–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Universal Computer Science.

Blog post
[Taub, 2016] Taub, B.: ‘How Presidential Candidates Use Their Voice As A Campaign Tool’; (2016, May 26). Retrieved 30 October 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[Government Accountability Office, 1990] Government Accountability Office: ‘DOD Overseas Schools: Additional Assurances of Educational Quality Needed’ (No. HRD-90-13); Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1990).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[Prasad, 2010] Prasad, A. B.: ‘Analyzing comparative sequence data to understand genome function and evolution’ (Doctoral dissertation); George Washington University, Washington, DC (2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[Rosenberg, 2017] Rosenberg, E.: ‘Acquitted, but Still Haunted by Jail and DNA Used Against Him’; New York Times (2017, May 17), A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Universal Computer Science
AbbreviationJ. Univers. Comput. Sci.
ISSN (print)0948-695x
ISSN (online)0948-6968
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Theoretical Computer Science

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