How to format your references using the Customer Needs and Solutions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Customer Needs and Solutions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holman CM (2008) Genetics. Trends in human gene patent litigation. Science 322:198–199
A journal article with 2 authors
Hayashi T, Carthew RW (2004) Surface mechanics mediate pattern formation in the developing retina. Nature 431:647–652
A journal article with 3 authors
Tomioka K, Yoshimura M, Fukui T (2012) A III-V nanowire channel on silicon for high-performance vertical transistors. Nature 488:189–192
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yan L, Zhu B, Jiao Z, et al (2014) An orientation measurement method based on Hall-effect sensors for permanent magnet spherical actuators with 3D magnet array. Sci Rep 4:6756

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cook HF (2017) The Protection and Conservation of Water Resources. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Chiarcos C, Nordhoff S, Hellmann S (2012) Linked Data in Linguistics: Representing and Connecting Language Data and Language Metadata. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Savoia C, Schiffrin EL (2015) Vascular Changes in the Microcirculation: Arterial Remodeling and Capillary Rarefaction. In: Berbari A, Mancia G (eds) Arterial Disorders: Definition, Clinical Manifestations, Mechanisms and Therapeutic Approaches. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 69–79

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Customer Needs and Solutions.

Blog post
Hale T (2015) Moron Shoots Cat With An Arrow In Michigan. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) Indian Affairs: Further Actions on GAO Recommendations Needed to Address Systemic Management Challenges with Indian Education. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Avila R (2017) Support and Resources for Homeless Families: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG (2013) ‘Dark Knight Returns’ Cover Art Goes for Sale. New York Times C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCustomer Needs and Solutions
AbbreviationCust. Needs Solut.
ISSN (print)2196-291X
ISSN (online)2196-2928

Other styles