How to format your references using the Customer Needs and Solutions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Customer Needs and Solutions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Gershon D (2003) When the chips are down. Nature 424:585
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Veillette A, Davidson D (2014) Immunology: When lymphocytes run out of steam. Nature 510:222–223
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Xu C, Shang X-D, Huang RX (2014) Horizontal eddy energy flux in the world oceans diagnosed from altimetry data. Sci Rep 4:5316
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Wolf SA, Awschalom DD, Buhrman RA, et al (2001) Spintronics: a spin-based electronics vision for the future. Science 294:1488–1495

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Good PI (2013) Introduction to Statistics Through Resampling Methods and R. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Hayat MA (2011) Tumors of the Central Nervous System, Volume 1: Gliomas: Glioblastoma (Part 1). Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Aschieri F, Zorzi M (2013) Non-determinism, Non-termination and the Strong Normalization of System T. In: Hasegawa M (ed) Typed Lambda Calculi and Applications: 11th International Conference, TLCA 2013, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, June 26-28, 2013. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 31–47

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Customer Needs and Solutions.

Blog post
1.
Carpineti A (2016) Google Shows How Earth Has Changed In The Last 33 Years. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/google-shows-how-earth-has-changed-in-the-last-33-years/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1990) Follow-up National Survey of Cable Television Rates and Services. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Mehta V (2009) Sparta in the Enlightenment. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Pilon M (2012) Coaching The Kayakers On 2 Wheels. New York Times B17

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCustomer Needs and Solutions
AbbreviationCust. Needs Solut.
ISSN (print)2196-291X
ISSN (online)2196-2928
Scope

Other styles