How to format your references using the Universe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Universe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Albarede, F. A geochemist wonders about the Solar System’s true age. Nature 2008, 454, 807.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yelenik, S.G.; D’Antonio, C.M. Self-reinforcing impacts of plant invasions change over time. Nature 2013, 503, 517–520.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang, Y.; Kirmizialtin, S.; Sanchez, I.C. Dynamic void distribution in myoglobin and five mutants. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4011.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dhar, S.; Vemulapalli, V.; Patananan, A.N.; Huang, G.L.; Di Lorenzo, A.; Richard, S.; Comb, M.J.; Guo, A.; Clarke, S.G.; Bedford, M.T. Loss of the major Type I arginine methyltransferase PRMT1 causes substrate scavenging by other PRMTs. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1311.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Khoei, A.R. Extended Finite Element Method; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2014; ISBN 9781118869673.
An edited book
Driscoll, B. Entity Framework 6 Recipes; Gupta, N., Vettor, R., Hirani, Z., Tenny, L., Eds.; Second Edition.; Apress: Berkeley, CA, 2013; ISBN 9781430257882.
A chapter in an edited book
Rosengarten, D. By the Rivers of Babylon: The Lowcountry Basket in Slavery and Freedom. In African Ethnobotany in the Americas; Voeks, R., Rashford, J., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2013; pp. 123–152 ISBN 9781461408352.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Universe.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Mystery Virus That Turned Millions Of Starfish Into Goo Is Finally Identified Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Competition: Issues on Establishing and Using Federally Funded Research and Development Centers; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1988;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grefe, S.E. Plasmonic and topological insulator nanostructures and metamaterials nanoscale near-field investigations: Experiment and theory. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. Fireman’s Spirit Is the Wind Beneath a Bird’s Wings. New York Times 2001, 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleUniverse
ISSN (online)2218-1997

Other styles