How to format your references using the Universe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Universe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ibáñez Insa, J. Geochemistry. Reformulating Table Salt under Pressure. Science 2013, 342, 1459–1460.
A journal article with 2 authors
Courseaux, A.; Nahon, J.L. Birth of Two Chimeric Genes in the Hominidae Lineage. Science 2001, 291, 1293–1297.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nandy, D.; Muñoz-Jaramillo, A.; Martens, P.C.H. The Unusual Minimum of Sunspot Cycle 23 Caused by Meridional Plasma Flow Variations. Nature 2011, 471, 80–82.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Whitlock, J.R.; Heynen, A.J.; Shuler, M.G.; Bear, M.F. Learning Induces Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampus. Science 2006, 313, 1093–1097.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bakus, G.J. Quantitative Analysis of Marine Biological Communities; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2007; ISBN 9780470099186.
An edited book
Bain, A. Rising to the Challenge of Transforming Higher Education: Designing Universities for Learning and Teaching; Zundans-Fraser, L., Ed.; SpringerBriefs in Education; Springer: Singapore, 2016; ISBN 9789811002595.
A chapter in an edited book
Monnet, C.; Klug, C.; De Baets, K. Evolutionary Patterns of Ammonoids: Phenotypic Trends, Convergence, and Parallel Evolution. In Ammonoid Paleobiology: From macroevolution to paleogeography; Klug, C., Korn, D., De Baets, K., Kruta, I., Mapes, R.H., Eds.; Topics in Geobiology; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2015; pp. 95–142 ISBN 9789401796323.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Universe.

Blog post
Fang, J. Ancient Drought Trapped Dodos and Giant Tortoises in Massive Toilet Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Federal Actions Needed to Ensure Safety and Expand Their Potential Uses within the National Airspace System; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Doddick, S. Noncontact 2D Plethysmography: A Non-Invasive Technique for Monitoring Dynamic Trends in a Respiratory System. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Arango, T.; Gordon, M.R. ISIS Is Routed As Iraqi Forces Reclaim Mosul. New York Times 2017, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleUniverse
ISSN (online)2218-1997

Other styles