How to format your references using the Universe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Universe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ellison, A.M. Political Borders Should Not Hamper Wildlife. Nature 2014, 508, 9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Seeley, R.J.; Sandoval, D.A. Neuroscience: Weight Loss through Smoking. Nature 2011, 475, 176–177.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cumings, J.; Collins, P.G.; Zettl, A. Peeling and Sharpening Multiwall Nanotubes. Nature 2000, 406, 586.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dadosh, T.; Gordin, Y.; Krahne, R.; Khivrich, I.; Mahalu, D.; Frydman, V.; Sperling, J.; Yacoby, A.; Bar-Joseph, I. Measurement of the Conductance of Single Conjugated Molecules. Nature 2005, 436, 677–680.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johnson Jr. MD, W.H.; Moller MD, J.H. Pediatric Cardiology; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2014; ISBN 9781118503379.
An edited book
Fifty Years of Fuzzy Logic and Its Applications; Tamir, D.E., Rishe, N.D., Kandel, A., Eds.; Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 326; ISBN 9783319196824.
A chapter in an edited book
Dubois, C.; Giorgetti, A.; Genestier, R. Tests and Proofs for Enumerative Combinatorics. In Tests and Proofs: 10th International Conference, TAP 2016, Held as Part of STAF 2016, Vienna, Austria, July 5-7, 2016, Proceedings; Aichernig, B.K., Furia, C.A., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 57–75 ISBN 9783319411347.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Universe.

Blog post
Andrew, E. The Oceans Are Changing Too Fast For Marine Life To Keep Up Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites: Additional Action Needed to Incorporate Lessons Learned from Other Satellite Programs; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2006;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Knehans, A. As You like It: The Road to Design. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ruiz, R.R.; Ivory, D.; Stout, H. 13 Deaths, Untold Heartache, From G.M. Defect. New York Times 2014, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleUniverse
ISSN (online)2218-1997

Other styles