How to format your references using the Universe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Universe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chakravarti, A. Being Human: Kinship: Race Relations. Nature 2009, 457, 380–381.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shah, R.R.; Abbott, N.L. Principles for Measurement of Chemical Exposure Based on Recognition-Driven Anchoring Transitions in Liquid Crystals. Science 2001, 293, 1296–1299.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xue, P.; Qin, H.; Tang, B. Trapping Photons on the Line: Controllable Dynamics of a Quantum Walk. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4825.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Smith, A.H.; Lopipero, P.A.; Bates, M.N.; Steinmaus, C.M. Public Health. Arsenic Epidemiology and Drinking Water Standards. Science 2002, 296, 2145–2146.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
King, M. Process Control; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2011; ISBN 9780470976562.
An edited book
Persistent Pollution – Past, Present and Future: School of Environmental Research - Organized by Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht; Quante, M., Ebinghaus, R., Flöser, G., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; ISBN 9783642174209.
A chapter in an edited book
Pardalopoulos, S.I.; Pantazopoulou, S.J.; Kontari, M.T. Rapid Seismic Assessment Procedure of Masonry Buildings with Historic Value. In Seismic Assessment, Behavior and Retrofit of Heritage Buildings and Monuments; Psycharis, I.N., Pantazopoulou, S.J., Papadrakakis, M., Eds.; Computational Methods in Applied Sciences; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 113–137 ISBN 9783319161297.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Universe.

Blog post
Andrew, E. New Yeasts Could Lead To More Diverse Lagers Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Space Transportation: NASA Has No Firm Need for Increasingly Costly Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1990;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jurka, J. The Importance of Being a Complement: CED Effects Revisited. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park: College Park, MD, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Antilla, S. 69 Red Flags Catch Up to a Broker. New York Times 2015, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleUniverse
ISSN (online)2218-1997

Other styles