How to format your references using the Universe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Universe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Slivan, S.M. Spin vector alignment of Koronis family asteroids. Nature 2002, 419, 49–51.
A journal article with 2 authors
Iijima, N.; Iwasaki, A. T cell memory. A local macrophage chemokine network sustains protective tissue-resident memory CD4 T cells. Science 2014, 346, 93–98.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bomfleur, B.; McLoughlin, S.; Vajda, V. Fossilized nuclei and chromosomes reveal 180 million years of genomic stasis in royal ferns. Science 2014, 343, 1376–1377.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wu, B.; Pan, J.; Ge, L.; Wu, L.; Wang, H.; Xu, T. Oriented MOF-polymer composite nanofiber membranes for high proton conductivity at high temperature and anhydrous condition. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4334.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
El-Rewini, H.; Abd-El-Barr, M. Advanced Computer Architecture and Parallel Processing; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2004; ISBN 9780471478386.
An edited book
Hybrid Metaheuristics: 7th International Workshop, HM 2010, Vienna, Austria, October 1-2, 2010. Proceedings; Blesa, M.J., Blum, C., Raidl, G., Roli, A., Sampels, M., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; Vol. 6373; ISBN 9783642160530.
A chapter in an edited book
Richter, M.M.; Weber, R.O. Case Representations. In Case-Based Reasoning: A Textbook; Weber, R.O., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 87–111 ISBN 9783642401664.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Universe.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Curing Baldness May Just Be About Having Enough Pluck Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Freight Transportation: National Policy and Strategies Can Help Improve Freight Mobility; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sidwell, M.D. Indirect measures as predictors of social skills observed through means of direct observation. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University: Mississippi State, MS, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. First, There Was Parrying With Mother. New York Times 2000, D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleUniverse
ISSN (online)2218-1997

Other styles