How to format your references using the Composite Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Composite Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harden N. Cell biology. Of grainy heads and broken skins. Science 2005;308:364–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ehrlich PR, Kennedy D. Sustainability. Millennium assessment of human behavior. Science 2005;309:562–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hinrichs K-U, Hmelo LR, Sylva SP. Molecular fossil record of elevated methane levels in late Pleistocene coastal waters. Science 2003;299:1214–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sales BC, Saparov B, McGuire MA, Singh DJ, Parker DS. Ferromagnetism of Fe3Sn and alloys. Sci Rep 2014;4:7024.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ni Z, Pacoret C, Benosman R, Régnier S. Haptic Feedback Teleoperation of Optical Tweezers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Moreira AL, Saqi A, editors. Diagnosing Non-small Cell Carcinoma in Small Biopsy and Cytology. New York, NY: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Unser A, Ziebertz H-G. Human Rights and Religion in Germany. In: Ziebertz H-G, Črpić G, editors. Religion and Human Rights: An International Perspective, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 61–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Composite Structures.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. SpaceX Plans To Return To Flight In January, Not December. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Manufacturing: Status of FAA’s Efforts to Improve Certification and Regulatory Consistency. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Deutsch D. Increased mental health services for the homeless. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Crow K. Check That Label, Jake. I Think It’s Chinatown. New York Times 2003:147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComposite Structures
AbbreviationCompos. Struct.
ISSN (print)0263-8223
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Ceramics and Composites

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