How to format your references using the Journal of Decision Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Decision Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pearson, H. (2003). Biotech firms pin hopes on defence. Nature, 422(6934), 790.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kuo, S. C., & McGrath, J. L. (2000). Steps and fluctuations of Listeria monocytogenes during actin-based motility. Nature, 407(6807), 1026–1029.
A journal article with 3 authors
Balachandran, S., Thomas, E., & Barber, G. N. (2004). A FADD-dependent innate immune mechanism in mammalian cells. Nature, 432(7015), 401–405.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Staller, P., Sulitkova, J., Lisztwan, J., Moch, H., Oakeley, E. J., & Krek, W. (2003). Chemokine receptor CXCR4 downregulated by von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor pVHL. Nature, 425(6955), 307–311.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cofnas, A. (2011). Trading Binary Options. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Komatineni, S. (2013). Expert Android (D. MacLean, Ed.). Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Janke, J. R., & Bellisario, A. (2010). Geospatial Techniques to Assess High Mountain Hazards: A Case Study on California Rock Glacier and an Application for Management in the Andes. In N. Hoalst-Pullen & M. W. Patterson (Eds.), Geospatial Technologies in Environmental Management (pp. 65–84). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Decision Systems.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, July 11). First-Ever Philistine Cemetery Unearthed In Israel. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1974). Review of Certain Aspects of the Head Start Program Operated by the Community Education Extension of Mary Holmes College, Jackson, Mississippi (B-157356). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hansell, L. (2017). Perceptions of Supervisor Ethical Behavior by Psychology Interns [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2010, April 24). American (Judicial) Idol. New York Times, A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pearson, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Kuo & McGrath, 2000; Pearson, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kuo & McGrath, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Balachandran et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Staller et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Decision Systems
AbbreviationJ. Decis. Syst.
ISSN (print)1246-0125
ISSN (online)2116-7052
ScopeManagement Information Systems

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