How to format your references using the Journal of Decision Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Decision Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, B. D. (2007). Behavior. The ultimate ecosystem engineers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5820), 1797–1798.
A journal article with 2 authors
Castro, J. M., & Dingwell, D. B. (2009). Rapid ascent of rhyolitic magma at Chaitén volcano, Chile. Nature, 461(7265), 780–783.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gavazzi, G., Bisio, A., & Pozzo, T. (2013). Time perception of visual motion is tuned by the motor representation of human actions. Scientific Reports, 3, 1168.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Walensky, L. D., Kung, A. L., Escher, I., Malia, T. J., Barbuto, S., Wright, R. D., Wagner, G., Verdine, G. L., & Korsmeyer, S. J. (2004). Activation of apoptosis in vivo by a hydrocarbon-stapled BH3 helix. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5689), 1466–1470.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Laheurte, J.-M., Ripoll, C., Paret, D., & Loussert, C. (2014). UHF RFID Technologies for Identification and Traceability. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Avresky, D. R., Diaz, M., Bode, A., Ciciani, B., & Dekel, E. (Eds.). (2010). Cloud Computing: First International Conference, CloudComp 2009 Munich, Germany, October 19–21, 2009 Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 34). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kainen, P. C., & Kůrková, V. (2008). Estimates of Network Complexity and Integral Representations. In V. Kůrková, R. Neruda, & J. Koutník (Eds.), Artificial Neural Networks - ICANN 2008: 18th International Conference, Prague, Czech Republic, September 3-6, 2008, Proceedings, Part I (pp. 31–40). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Decision Systems.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2015, October 10). Ever Wondered How Astronauts Get Into Their Spacesuits? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). 2010 Census: Key Enumeration Activities Are Moving Forward, but Information Technology Systems Remain a Concern (GAO-10-430T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Makovec, M. G. (2008). A study of the factors predicting attrition and contributing to the attrition rate of high school teachers in Hampton Roads, Virginia [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G. (2015, January 20). Living at Random. New York Times, D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Castro & Dingwell, 2009; Smith, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Castro & Dingwell, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Gavazzi et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Walensky et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Decision Systems
AbbreviationJ. Decis. Syst.
ISSN (print)1246-0125
ISSN (online)2116-7052
ScopeManagement Information Systems

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