How to format your references using the Journal of Decision Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Decision Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Klarreich, E. (2001). Wellcome Trust sets out fresh misconduct standards. Nature, 412(6848), 667.
A journal article with 2 authors
Davis, P. M., & Jackson, D. D. (2011). Retrospective. Leon Knopoff (1925-2011). Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6023), 1400.
A journal article with 3 authors
Song, K., Yeom, E., & Lee, S. J. (2014). Real-time imaging of pulvinus bending in Mimosa pudica. Scientific Reports, 4, 6466.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Steffen, M., Ansmann, M., Bialczak, R. C., Katz, N., Lucero, E., McDermott, R., Neeley, M., Weig, E. M., Cleland, A. N., & Martinis, J. M. (2006). Measurement of the entanglement of two superconducting qubits via state tomography. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5792), 1423–1425.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Equipment Testing Procedures Committee. (2002). Centrifugal Pumps (Newtonian Liquids). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dragan, V. (2013). Mathematical Methods in Robust Control of Linear Stochastic Systems (T. Morozan & A.-M. Stoica, Eds.; 2nd ed. 2013). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Villa, P., & Lenoir, M. (2009). Hunting and Hunting Weapons of the Lower and Middle Paleolithic of Europe. In J.-J. Hublin & M. P. Richards (Eds.), The Evolution of Hominin Diets: Integrating Approaches to the Study of Palaeolithic Subsistence (pp. 59–85). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Decision Systems.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, May 26). US Nuclear Weapons Computers Still Use Floppy Disks. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1979). Supplemental Security Income Computerized System Development Process (HRD-80-5). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huffer, D. J. (2013). A spatial analysis and zooarchaeological interpretation of archaeological bison remains in the Southwest and the wildlife management implications for the House Rock Valley bison herd in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Detrick, B. (2016, November 30). Paul’s Casablanca. New York Times, D9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Klarreich, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Davis & Jackson, 2011; Klarreich, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Davis & Jackson, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Song et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Steffen et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Decision Systems
AbbreviationJ. Decis. Syst.
ISSN (print)1246-0125
ISSN (online)2116-7052
ScopeManagement Information Systems

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