How to format your references using the Journal of Trust Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Trust Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bobrow, M. (2015). Funders must encourage scientists to share. Nature, 522(7555), 129.
A journal article with 2 authors
Patrinos, A., & Drell, D. (2002). The times they are a-changin’. Nature, 417(6889), 589–590.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thisse, B., Wright, C. V., & Thisse, C. (2000). Activin- and Nodal-related factors control antero-posterior patterning of the zebrafish embryo. Nature, 403(6768), 425–428.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zandt, G., Gilbert, H., Owens, T. J., Ducea, M., Saleeby, J., & Jones, C. H. (2004). Active foundering of a continental arc root beneath the southern Sierra Nevada in California. Nature, 431(7004), 41–46.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fischer, D. J., Treister, N. S., & Pinto, A. (2013). Risk Assessment and Oral Diagnostics in Clinical Dentistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bellucci, S. (2013). Geometrical Methods for Power Network Analysis (B. N. Tiwari & N. Gupta, Eds.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Auguste, P., Vincent, F., Gabbiani, G., & Desmoulière, A. (2008). The fibroblast and myofibroblast in inflammatory angiogenesis. In M. P. Seed & D. A. Walsh (Eds.), Angiogenesis in Inflammation: Mechanisms and Clinical Correlates (pp. 59–82). Birkhäuser.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Trust Research.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, December 2). NASA Photographs Massive Crack In Antarctica Ice Shelf. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Medicare Transaction System: Success Depends Upon Correcting Critical Managerial and Technical Weaknesses (AIMD-97-78). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lai, J.-P. (2008). Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome Ten (PTEN) As A Molecular Target in Lung Epithelial Wound Repair and Protection [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007, November 21). Justices Will Decide if Handgun Kept at Home Is Individual Right. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bobrow, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bobrow, 2015; Patrinos & Drell, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Patrinos & Drell, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Thisse et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zandt et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Trust Research
AbbreviationJ. Trust Res.
ISSN (print)2151-5581
ISSN (online)2151-559X

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