How to format your references using the Journal of Trust Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Trust Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ramirez, A. P. (2007). Applied physics. Oxide electronics emerge. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5817), 1377–1378.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shaw, R. J., & Cantley, L. C. (2012). Cell biology. Ancient sensor for ancient drug. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6083), 813–814.
A journal article with 3 authors
Buehler, M. J., Abraham, F. F., & Gao, H. (2003). Hyperelasticity governs dynamic fracture at a critical length scale. Nature, 426(6963), 141–146.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Paterson, L., MacDonald, M. P., Arlt, J., Sibbett, W., Bryant, P. E., & Dholakia, K. (2001). Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5518), 912–914.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schulze, V. (2005). Modern Mechanical Surface Treatment. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Balogh, A. (2008). The Heliosphere through the Solar Activity Cycle (L. J. Lanzerotti & S. T. Suess, Eds.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Barman, K., Sharma, S., Kumari, P., & Siddiqui, M. W. (2016). Salicylic Acid. In M. W. Siddiqui, J. F. Ayala Zavala, & C.-A. (andy) Hwang (Eds.), Postharvest Management Approaches for Maintaining Quality of Fresh Produce (pp. 51–68). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Trust Research.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, April 27). Scientists Just Captured Something Extraordinary At The Moment Of Fertilization. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from IFLScience website:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Information Technology: Demand for the Social Security Administration’s Electronic Data Exchanges Is Growing and Presents Future Challenges (No. GAO-09-126). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tambornini, T. F. (2013). Supportive and subsidized housing solutions for Sonoma County: A grant project (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2016, May 20). Bipartisan Bill Poses Federal Control Over Puerto Rico’s Fiscal Affairs. New York Times, p. B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ramirez, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Ramirez, 2007; Shaw & Cantley, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shaw & Cantley, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Buehler, Abraham, & Gao, 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Paterson et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Trust Research
AbbreviationJ. Trust Res.
ISSN (print)2151-5581
ISSN (online)2151-559X

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