How to format your references using the Journal of Trust Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Trust Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fusi, S. (2008). Neuroscience. A quiescent working memory. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5869), 1495–1496.
A journal article with 2 authors
Saavedra, S., & Stouffer, D. B. (2013). “Disentangling nestedness” disentangled. Nature, 500(7463), E1-2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pulendran, B., Palucka, K., & Banchereau, J. (2001). Sensing pathogens and tuning immune responses. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5528), 253–256.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Coolen, M. J. L., Cypionka, H., Sass, A. M., Sass, H., & Overmann, J. (2002). Ongoing modification of Mediterranean Pleistocene sapropels mediated by prokaryotes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5577), 2407–2410.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Terré, M., Pischella, M., & Vivier, E. (2013). Wireless Telecommunication Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Layton, W. J. (2012). Approximate Deconvolution Models of Turbulence: Analysis, Phenomenology and Numerical Analysis (L. Rebholz, Ed.; Vol. 2042). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Warnecke, T., Dohrmann, P., Jürgens, A., Rausch, A., & Pinkwart, N. (2011). Collaborative Learning through Cooperative Design Using a Multitouch Table. In Y. Luo (Ed.), Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering: 8th International Conference, CDVE 2011, Hong Kong, China, September 11-14, 2011. Proceedings (pp. 22–29). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Trust Research.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, August 20). Female Fish Genital Openings Are Smaller When There Are Lots Of Predators Around. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Port Infrastructure: Financing of Navigation Projects at Small and Medium-Sized Ports (RCED-00-58). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Weber, C. (2013). Exercise for older adults with dementia [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2013, January 3). A Series of Poses for Fitness, Inside and Out. New York Times, A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fusi, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Fusi, 2008; Saavedra & Stouffer, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Saavedra & Stouffer, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Pulendran et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Coolen et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Trust Research
AbbreviationJ. Trust Res.
ISSN (print)2151-5581
ISSN (online)2151-559X

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