How to format your references using the Journal of Trust Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Trust Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Temple, S. (2001). The development of neural stem cells. Nature, 414(6859), 112–117.
A journal article with 2 authors
Poggio, T., & Bizzi, E. (2004). Generalization in vision and motor control. Nature, 431(7010), 768–774.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, X., Rickert, M., & Garcia, K. C. (2005). Structure of the quaternary complex of interleukin-2 with its alpha, beta, and gammac receptors. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5751), 1159–1163.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gröbner, G., Burnett, I. J., Glaubitz, C., Choi, G., Mason, A. J., & Watts, A. (2000). Observations of light-induced structural changes of retinal within rhodopsin. Nature, 405(6788), 810–813.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Wen, E., Ellis, R., & S. Pujar, N. (2014). Vaccine Development and Manufacturing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Shi, X., & Chen, Y. (Eds.). (2014). Machine Translation: 10th China Workshop, CWMT 2014, Macau, China, November 4-6, 2014. Proceedings (Vol. 493). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gronwald, K.-D. (2012). Global Sourcing: Shifting the Focus from Cost Saving to a Strategic Set-up. In U. Bäumer, P. Kreutter, & W. Messner (Eds.), Globalization of Professional Services: Innovative Strategies, Successful Processes, Inspired Talent Management, and First-Hand Experiences (pp. 33–39). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Trust Research.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, July 21). Purps The Penguin Gets A New 3D-Printed Boot To Help With Her Injury. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Information Technology: SSA Has Taken Key Steps for Managing Its Investments, but Needs to Strengthen Oversight and Fully Define Policies and Procedures (GAO-08-1020). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vado, P. F. (2012). Foster Care Independence Act of 1999: A policy analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, September 2). No Longer Thinking Uniformly. New York Times, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Temple, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Poggio & Bizzi, 2004; Temple, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Poggio & Bizzi, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Wang et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Gröbner et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Trust Research
AbbreviationJ. Trust Res.
ISSN (print)2151-5581
ISSN (online)2151-559X

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