How to format your references using the Journal of Trust Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Trust Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gilbertson, S. R. (2012). Chemistry. Relay reactions that trap organometallic intermediates. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6113), 1432–1433.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pahnke, K., & Zahn, R. (2005). Southern Hemisphere water mass conversion linked with North Atlantic climate variability. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5716), 1741–1746.
A journal article with 3 authors
Long, J. C. S., Loy, F., & Morgan, M. G. (2015). Policy: Start research on climate engineering. Nature, 518(7537), 29–31.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hurtado, A., Holmes, K. A., Geistlinger, T. R., Hutcheson, I. R., Nicholson, R. I., Brown, M., … Carroll, J. S. (2008). Regulation of ERBB2 by oestrogen receptor-PAX2 determines response to tamoxifen. Nature, 456(7222), 663–666.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tunley, M., Whittaker, A., Gee, J., & Button, M. (2015). The Accredited Counter Fraud Specialist Handbook. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Wong, C. W. Y. (2015). Environmental Management: The Supply Chain Perspective. (K.-H. Lai, Y. H. V. Lun, & T. C. E. Cheng, Eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Kuan, C.-C., Lin, G.-Y., & Wei, H.-Y. (2012). Green Femtocell Networking with IEEE 802.16m Low Duty Operation Mode. In J. J. P. C. Rodrigues, L. Zhou, M. Chen, & A. Kailas (Eds.), Green Communications and Networking: First International Conference, GreeNets 2011, Colmar, France, October 5-7, 2011, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 37–50). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Trust Research.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, December 20). 22 Ways To Be Healthier With Minimal Effort. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Technology Transfer: Implementation of CRADAs at NIST, Army, and DOE (No. T-RCED-93-53). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mizokami, S. K. (2015). Fall risk factors among cane and walker users and non-users (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2004, July 20). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Chechen Issues New Threat. New York Times, p. A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gilbertson, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Gilbertson, 2012; Pahnke & Zahn, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pahnke & Zahn, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Long, Loy, & Morgan, 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hurtado et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Trust Research
AbbreviationJ. Trust Res.
ISSN (print)2151-5581
ISSN (online)2151-559X

Other styles