How to format your references using the Copeia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Copeia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Triplett, B. 2000. Astronomers fume over night light. Nature 405:987–988.
A journal article with 2 authors
Elderfield, H., and R. E. Rickaby. 2000. Oceanic Cd/P ratio and nutrient utilization in the glacial Southern Ocean. Nature 405:305–310.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wallace, K., G. Hardy, and E. Serabyn. 2000. Deep and stable interferometric nulling of broadband light with implications for observing planets around nearby stars. Nature 406:700–702.
A journal article with 13 or more authors
Maritan, A., C. Micheletti, A. Trovato, and J. R. Banavar. 2000. Optimal shapes of compact strings. Nature 406:287–290.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reiher, M., and A. Wolf. 2014. Relativistic Quantum Chemistry. In.: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Mariconda, C. 2016. Discrete Calculus: Methods for Counting. In.: Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Tompkins, D. M., and R. Poulin. 2006. Parasites and Biological Invasions. In: Biological Invasions in New Zealand. R. B. Allen and W. G. Lee (eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 67–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Copeia.

Blog post
Andrews, R. 2016. Earth’s Atmosphere Was Once Much Thinner Than We Thought. IFLScience. [Online.] Available at


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1984. Tax Information Safeguard Activity Annual Report.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chiu, Y.-Y. L. 2012. Multicultural educational policies: A correlational investigation of cultural competencies and feelings of inclusion.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. 2016. ‘The Only Girl in the Building.’ New York Times:AR8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Triplett, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Elderfield and Rickaby, 2000; Triplett, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Elderfield and Rickaby, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Maritan et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleCopeia
ISSN (print)0045-8511
ISSN (online)1938-5110
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Aquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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