How to format your references using the Copeia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Copeia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service, R. F. 2000. NUCLEAR SCIENCE: DOE Drops Plan to Restart Reactor. Science (New York, N.Y.) 290:1666b–7b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Merritt, D., and R. D. Ekers. 2002. Tracing black hole mergers through radio lobe morphology. Science (New York, N.Y.) 297:1310–1313.
A journal article with 3 authors
Piras, V., M. Tomita, and K. Selvarajoo. 2014. Transcriptome-wide variability in single embryonic development cells. Scientific reports 4:7137.
A journal article with 13 or more authors
Lee, W. S., I. M. Vishik, K. Tanaka, D. H. Lu, T. Sasagawa, N. Nagaosa, T. P. Devereaux, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen. 2007. Abrupt onset of a second energy gap at the superconducting transition of underdoped Bi2212. Nature 450:81–84.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Akiba, K.-Y. 2011. Organo Main Group Chemistry. In.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Humphreys, S. C., and R. G. Wagner (Editors). 2013. Modernity’s Classics. In.: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Akol, R. N., and S. Muhumuza. 2015. Enhancing Performance in Cognitive Radio Networks. In: e-Infrastructure and e-Services for Developing Countries: 6th International Conference, AFRICOMM 2014, Kampala, Uganda, November 24-25, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. A. Nungu, B. Pehrson and J. Sansa-Otim (eds.). Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 32–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Copeia.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014. How Rosetta Made An Epic Journey Through Space And Overcame Incredible Challenges. IFLScience. [Online.] Available at


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Comparison of Amtrak Employee Injury Settlement Costs Under the Federal Employers’ Liability Act and State Workers’ Compensation Programs.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nam, Y.-H. 2008. On Throughput-Reliability-Delay Tradeoffs in Wireless Networks.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. 2001. A Shelter Gets a Cold Shoulder In a “Pastoral” Residential Area. New York Times:144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Service, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Service, 2000; Merritt and Ekers, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Merritt and Ekers, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleCopeia
ISSN (print)0045-8511
ISSN (online)1938-5110
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Aquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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