How to format your references using the Zoology in the Middle East citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoology in the Middle East. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, M. (2012). Biorepositories: Building better biobanks. Nature, 486(7401), 141–146.
A journal article with 2 authors
Khakh, B. S., & North, R. A. (2006). P2X receptors as cell-surface ATP sensors in health and disease. Nature, 442(7102), 527–532.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nakamura, K., Takahashi, Y., & Fujiwara, T. (2014). Low-temperature excess heat capacity in fresnoite glass and crystal. Scientific Reports, 4, 6523.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Herbig, J., Kraemer, T., Mark, M., Weber, T., Chin, C., Nägerl, H.-C., & Grimm, R. (2003). Preparation of a pure molecular quantum gas. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5639), 1510–1513.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tsujimura, T. (2017). OLED Display Fundamentals and Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Swamy, P. P., & Guru, D. S. (Eds.). (2013). Multimedia Processing, Communication and Computing Applications: Proceedings of the First International Conference, ICMCCA, 13-15 December 2012 (Vol. 213). Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Beste, D. J. V., & McFadden, J. (2013). Metabolism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In J. McFadden, D. J. V. Beste, & A. M. Kierzek (Eds.), Systems Biology of Tuberculosis (pp. 55–78). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoology in the Middle East.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016, October 19). Watch Live As ESA Attempts To Land On Mars. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Land Management Systems: Extensive Cost Increases and Delays in BLM’s Major Data Base Project (IMTEC-91-55). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tuinenga, J. M. (2010). John Corigliano’s Sonata for violin and piano: An analysis of context, structure, and style [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L. (2017, March 1). On Dealing With NATO Allies, and Military Spending. New York Times, A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Baker, 2012; Khakh & North, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Khakh & North, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Nakamura et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Herbig et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoology in the Middle East
AbbreviationZool. Middle East
ISSN (print)0939-7140
ISSN (online)2326-2680
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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