How to format your references using the Zoology in the Middle East citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoology in the Middle East. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Raffaelli, D. (2004). Ecology. How extinction patterns affect ecosystems. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5699), 1141–1142.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bond-Lamberty, B., & Thomson, A. (2010). Temperature-associated increases in the global soil respiration record. Nature, 464(7288), 579–582.
A journal article with 3 authors
Karakas, E., Simorowski, N., & Furukawa, H. (2011). Subunit arrangement and phenylethanolamine binding in GluN1/GluN2B NMDA receptors. Nature, 475(7355), 249–253.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wu, Q., Tun, H. M., Leung, F. C.-C., & Shah, N. P. (2014). Genomic insights into high exopolysaccharide-producing dairy starter bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275. Scientific Reports, 4, 4974.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hersent, O., Petit, J.-P., & Gurle, D. (2005). IP Telephony. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Conti, R. (Ed.). (2011). Calculus of Variations, Classical and Modern (Vol. 39). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Felici, M. (2007). Trust Strategies and Policies in Complex Socio-technical Safety-Critical Domains: An Analysis of the Air Traffic Management Domain. In N. Guelfi & D. Buchs (Eds.), Rapid Integration of Software Engineering Techniques: Third International Workshop, RISE 2006, Geneva, Switzerland, September 13-15, 2006. Revised Selected Papers (pp. 51–65). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoology in the Middle East.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, August 17). Dig Begins For Legendary Nazi Gold Train. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Illegal Alien Schoolchildren: Issues in Estimating State-by-State Costs (GAO-04-733). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramos, J. (2017). Surviving Childhood Bullying: Impact on Psychosocial Well-Being in Adulthood [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2012, May 6). From Misfit With Blog To Author With Deal. New York Times, A31B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Raffaelli, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Bond-Lamberty & Thomson, 2010; Raffaelli, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bond-Lamberty & Thomson, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Karakas et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoology in the Middle East
AbbreviationZool. Middle East
ISSN (print)0939-7140
ISSN (online)2326-2680
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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