How to format your references using the Zoology in the Middle East citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoology in the Middle East. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butte, A. J. (2008). Medicine. The ultimate model organism. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5874), 325–327.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yin, H., & Lin, H. (2007). An epigenetic activation role of Piwi and a Piwi-associated piRNA in Drosophila melanogaster. Nature, 450(7167), 304–308.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tripati, A. K., Roberts, C. D., & Eagle, R. A. (2009). Coupling of CO2 and ice sheet stability over major climate transitions of the last 20 million years. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5958), 1394–1397.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Miaudet, P., Derré, A., Maugey, M., Zakri, C., Piccione, P. M., Inoubli, R., & Poulin, P. (2007). Shape and temperature memory of nanocomposites with broadened glass transition. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5854), 1294–1296.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fell, G. J. (2013). Decoding the IT Value Problem. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Collard, M. (Ed.). (2007). Ontologies-Based Databases and Information Systems: First and Second VLDB Workshops, ODBIS 2005/2006 Trondheim, Norway, September 2-3, 2005 Seoul, Korea, September 11, 2006 Revised Papers (Vol. 4623). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Göktay, A. Y., & MacLennan, G. T. (2013). Vascular Disorders of the Kidney. In V. S. Dogra & G. T. MacLennan (Eds.), Genitourinary Radiology: Kidney, Bladder and Urethra: The Pathologic Basis (pp. 145–183). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoology in the Middle East.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, November 14). Increase In Gun Deaths Linked To “Stand Your Ground” Law In Florida. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Aviation Research: FAA Could Enhance Its Program to Meet Current and Future Challenges (RCED-92-180). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chappel, A. M. (2012). A Longitudinal Investigation of Stress, Complete Mental Health, and Social Support among High School Students [Doctoral dissertation]. University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gavin, J. (2017, July 20). The Divine One. New York Times, BR22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Butte, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Butte, 2008; Yin & Lin, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yin & Lin, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Tripati et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Miaudet et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoology in the Middle East
AbbreviationZool. Middle East
ISSN (print)0939-7140
ISSN (online)2326-2680
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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