How to format your references using the Zoology in the Middle East citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoology in the Middle East. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dennis, C. (2003). Genomics: compare and contrast. Nature, 426(6968), 750–751.
A journal article with 2 authors
Allesina, S., & Tang, S. (2012). Stability criteria for complex ecosystems. Nature, 483(7388), 205–208.
A journal article with 3 authors
Asaadi, N., Ribe, N. M., & Sobouti, F. (2011). Inferring nonlinear mantle rheology from the shape of the Hawaiian swell. Nature, 473(7348), 501–504.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Dray, N., Tessmar-Raible, K., Le Gouar, M., Vibert, L., Christodoulou, F., Schipany, K., Guillou, A., Zantke, J., Snyman, H., Béhague, J., Vervoort, M., Arendt, D., & Balavoine, G. (2010). Hedgehog signaling regulates segment formation in the annelid Platynereis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5989), 339–342.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Askoolum, A. (2007). System Building with APL + Win. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Dworkin, M., Falkow, S., Rosenberg, E., Schleifer, K.-H., & Stackebrandt, E. (Eds.). (2006). The Prokaryotes: Volume 4: Bacteria: Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria. Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Gulliver, J. S. (2012). Transport in the Environment. In J. S. Gulliver (Ed.), Transport and Fate of Chemicals in the Environment: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology (pp. 65–88). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoology in the Middle East.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, April 27). Populations Of Pacific Bluefin Tuna Have Crashed By 97 Percent. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Bureau of Indian Affairs Contracts for Automatic Data Processing Management Services, and for Development of a Management Information System at the Colorado River Indian Reservation (B-114868). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dillon, M. (2014). Active aging program for older adults with early stage dementia [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Soloski, A. (2015, May 6). The Ethics of Telling Someone Else’s Story. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dennis, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Allesina & Tang, 2012; Dennis, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Allesina & Tang, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Asaadi et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Dray et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoology in the Middle East
AbbreviationZool. Middle East
ISSN (print)0939-7140
ISSN (online)2326-2680
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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