How to format your references using the Zoology in the Middle East citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoology in the Middle East. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Atlas, R. M. (2002). Public health. National security and the biological research community. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5594), 753–754.
A journal article with 2 authors
Birchler, J. A., & Kavi, H. H. (2008). Molecular biology. Slicing and dicing for small RNAs. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5879), 1023–1024.
A journal article with 3 authors
Samet, J. M., DeMarini, D. M., & Malling, H. V. (2004). Biomedicine. Do airborne particles induce heritable mutations? Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5673), 971–972.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Fan, C., Jin, Y., Li, J., & Dong, X. (2014). A novel stable binary BeB₂ phase [corrected]. Scientific Reports, 4, 6993.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baker, H. K., & English, P. (2011). Capital Budgeting Valuation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pasieka, J. L., & Lee, J. A. (Eds.). (2015). Surgical Endocrinopathies: Clinical Management and the Founding Figures. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Robyns, B., Francois, B., Degobert, P., & Hautier, J. P. (2012). Theoretical Study of the Parametric Sensitivity. In B. Francois, P. Degobert, & J. P. Hautier (Eds.), Vector Control of Induction Machines: Desensitisation and Optimisation Through Fuzzy Logic (pp. 123–153). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoology in the Middle East.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, August 10). Can Environmentalists Learn To Love – Or Just Tolerate – Nuclear Power? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1983). Use of Federally Supported Research Facilities (No. 121372). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dalton, R. (2010). The story of Huo Yuanjia and the narrative of national humiliation in post-Mao China [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J. (2016, October 27). Measure in Florida That Claims to Support Solar Power Could Discourage It. New York Times, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Atlas, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Atlas, 2002; Birchler & Kavi, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Birchler & Kavi, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Samet et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Fan et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoology in the Middle East
AbbreviationZool. Middle East
ISSN (print)0939-7140
ISSN (online)2326-2680
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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