How to format your references using the Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Oreskes, N. “Beyond the Ivory Tower. The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change.” Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 306, No. 5702, 2004, p. 1686.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bray, P. S., and Anderson, K. B. “Identification of Carboniferous (320 Million Years Old) Class Ic Amber.” Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 326, No. 5949, 2009, pp. 132–134.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoshida, N., Omukai, K., and Hernquist, L. “Protostar Formation in the Early Universe.” Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 321, No. 5889, 2008, pp. 669–671.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Blakemore, C., Dawkins, R., Noble, D., and Yudkin, M. “Is a Scientific Boycott Ever Justified?” Nature, Vol. 421, No. 6921, 2003, p. 314.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chance, D. M. Essays in Derivatives. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2008.
An edited book
Bailey, D. H. Pi: The Next Generation: A Sourcebook on the Recent History of Pi and Its Computation. Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Kaliszyk, C., and Ida, T. Proof Assistant Decision Procedures for Formalizing Origami. In Intelligent Computer Mathematics: 18th Symposium, Calculemus 2011, and 10th International Conference, MKM 2011, Bertinoro, Italy, July 18-23, 2011. Proceedings (J. H. Davenport, W. M. Farmer, J. Urban, and F. Rabe, eds.), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011, pp. 45–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets.

Blog post
Davis, J. World’s Oldest Known Orca Feared Dead. IFLScience. Accessed Oct. 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space-Based Lasers. Publication 117803. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thomas, L. E. Youth Art Ambassadors: A Youth Participatory Action Research Project Using Social Justice to Incite Change in Classrooms Where Teachers Teach Young People of Color. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. “World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Another Sign Explodes.” New York Times, Jul 11, 2002, p. A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Spacecraft and Rockets
AbbreviationJ. Spacecr. Rockets
ISSN (print)0022-4650
ISSN (online)1533-6794
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Aerospace Engineering

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