How to format your references using the Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, C., “Drug Target Identification: A Question of Biology,” Nature, Vol. 428, No. 6979, 2004, pp. 225–231.
A journal article with 2 authors
Welker, J., and Giessibl, F. J., “Revealing the Angular Symmetry of Chemical Bonds by Atomic Force Microscopy,” Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 336, No. 6080, 2012, pp. 444–449.
A journal article with 3 authors
Falkowski, P. G., Fenchel, T., and Delong, E. F., “The Microbial Engines That Drive Earth’s Biogeochemical Cycles,” Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 320, No. 5879, 2008, pp. 1034–1039.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhao, J., Qian, Y., Bi, H.-Y., and Coltheart, M., “The Visual Magnocellular-Dorsal Dysfunction in Chinese Children with Developmental Dyslexia Impedes Chinese Character Recognition,” Scientific reports, Vol. 4, 2014, p. 7068.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schmidt, P., Körber, R., and Coppers, M., “Sieben Und Siebmaschinen,” Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2003.
An edited book
Walsh, S. J., and Mena, C. F., Eds., “Science and Conservation in the Galapagos Islands: Frameworks & Perspectives,” Springer, New York, NY, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Villena, J. F., Schilders, W. H. A., and Miguel Silveira, L., “Parametric Structure-Preserving Model Order Reduction,” VLSI-SoC: Advanced Topics on Systems on a Chip: A Selection of Extended Versions of the Best Papers of the Fourteenth International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration of System on Chip (VLSI-SoC2007), October 15-17, 2007, Atlanta, USA, edited by P. Hasler, V. Mooney, and R. Reis, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2009, pp. 1–20.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets.

Blog post
Andrew, E., “Amazing Time-Lapse Shows A Fly Emerging From Its Pupa,” IFLScience, IFLScience, Sep 29 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites: Steps Remain in Incorporating Lessons Learned from Other Satellite Programs,” GAO-06-993, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, September 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fonteix, K. A., “Separate, But Not Equal: A Qualitative Case Study Comparing Traditional And Homebound Instruction Using Technology,” Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G., “A Comics Confab That Never Ends,” New York Times, Mar 17 2016, p. F30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Spacecraft and Rockets
AbbreviationJ. Spacecr. Rockets
ISSN (print)0022-4650
ISSN (online)1533-6794
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Aerospace Engineering

Other styles