How to format your references using the Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kornilov, O. “Chemical Physics. The Quantum Halo State of the Helium Trimer.” Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 348, No. 6234, 2015, pp. 498–499.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brasier, M., and Antcliffe, J. “Paleobiology. Decoding the Ediacaran Enigma.” Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 305, No. 5687, 2004, pp. 1115–1117.
A journal article with 3 authors
Buchner, D. A., Trudeau, M., and Meisler, M. H. “SCNM1, a Putative RNA Splicing Factor That Modifies Disease Severity in Mice.” Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 301, No. 5635, 2003, pp. 967–969.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, A., Mu, H., Zhang, W., Cui, G., Zhu, J., and Duan, J. “Chitosan Coupling Makes Microbial Biofilms Susceptible to Antibiotics.” Scientific reports, Vol. 3, 2013, p. 3364.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ccps. Guidelines for Combustible Dust Hazard Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2017.
An edited book
Wu, G., Coupé, P., Zhan, Y., Munsell, B., and Rueckert, D., Eds. Patch-Based Techniques in Medical Imaging: First International Workshop, Patch-MI 2015, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2015, Munich, Germany, October 9, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Aksamit, A. J. Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy. In Viral Infections of the Human Nervous System (A. C. Jackson, ed.), Springer, Basel, 2013, pp. 65–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets.

Blog post
Fang, J. Tiny Songbird Flies 60 Hours Nonstop Across The Sahara. IFLScience. Accessed Oct. 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Laboratories: Are Their R&D Activities Related to Commercial Product Development? Publication PEMD-95-2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lanza, K. M. The Antecedents of Automotive Brand Loyalty and Repurchase Intentions. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. “Yourself Esq.” New York Times, Nov 16, 1997, p. 143.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Spacecraft and Rockets
AbbreviationJ. Spacecr. Rockets
ISSN (print)0022-4650
ISSN (online)1533-6794
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Aerospace Engineering

Other styles