How to format your references using the Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler, D., “Public library set to turn publisher as boycott looms,” Nature, vol. 412, Aug. 2001, p. 469.
A journal article with 2 authors
Galloway, L. F., and Etterson, J. R., “Transgenerational plasticity is adaptive in the wild,” Science (New York, N.Y.), vol. 318, Nov. 2007, pp. 1134–1136.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ozaki, M., Kato, J.-I., and Kawata, S., “Surface-plasmon holography with white-light illumination,” Science (New York, N.Y.), vol. 332, Apr. 2011, pp. 218–220.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gogotsi, Y., Welz, S., Ersoy, D. A., and McNallan, M. J., “Conversion of silicon carbide to crystalline diamond-structured carbon at ambient pressure,” Nature, vol. 411, May 2001, pp. 283–287.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bobrow, J., Fisher, S., Mondragon-Gilmore, J., Casson, A., Orton, P. Z., Nathan, H. D., Jones, J., Hays, J., Kohn, E., Christinson, J., Sekeres, K., Swovelin, B., Di Pietro, R., Crowder, G., Spence, M., and Gilmore, P., CliffsNotes® CSET®, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2009.
An edited book
Meghvansi, M. K., and Varma, A., eds., Organic Amendments and Soil Suppressiveness in Plant Disease Management, Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Alexandrino, M. M., and Bettiol, R. G., “Polar Foliations,” Lie Groups and Geometric Aspects of Isometric Actions, R.G. Bettiol, ed., Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp. 109–137.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets.

Blog post
Andrew, E., “How Much Lembas Would You Need To Get To Mordor?,” IFLScience Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Business Systems Modernization: Scope and Content of DOD’s Congressional Report and Executive Oversight of Investments Need to Improve, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vidal, E. M., “Alcohol disorder with hip or knee surgery: Postoperative alcohol disorder-related costs and length of stay,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W., “Puerto Rico to Restructure Up to $5.7 Billion in Debt,” New York Times, Sep. 2015, p. B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Spacecraft and Rockets
AbbreviationJ. Spacecr. Rockets
ISSN (print)0022-4650
ISSN (online)1533-6794
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Aerospace Engineering

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