How to format your references using the Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston, D. “Technical Advice.” Nature, Vol. 448, No. 7150, 2007, p. 119.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lukas, J., and Lukas, C. “Molecular Biology. Shielding Broken DNA for a Quick Fix.” Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 339, No. 6120, 2013, pp. 652–653.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sakuno, T., Tada, K., and Watanabe, Y. “Kinetochore Geometry Defined by Cohesion within the Centromere.” Nature, Vol. 458, No. 7240, 2009, pp. 852–858.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Deb, K., Sivaguru, M., Yong, H. Y., and Roberts, R. M. “Cdx2 Gene Expression and Trophectoderm Lineage Specification in Mouse Embryos.” Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 311, No. 5763, 2006, pp. 992–996.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kerzner, H., and Belack, C. Managing Complex Projects. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
Hähnle, R., Knoop, J., Margaria, T., Schreiner, D., and Steffen, B., Eds. Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification, and Validation: International Workshops, SARS 2011 and MLSC 2011, Held Under the Auspices of ISoLA 2011 in Vienna, Austria, October 17-18, 2011. Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Buscemi, M. G., Montanari, U., and Taneja, S. Toward a Game-Theoretic Model of Grid Systems. In Trustworthly Global Computing: 5th International Symposium, TGC 2010, Munich, Germany, February 24-26, 2010, Revised Selected Papers (M. Wirsing, M. Hofmann, and A. Rauschmayer, eds.), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010, pp. 57–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Small Glitches, But Rosetta Comet Mission Is Achieving Major Scientific Goals. IFLScience. Accessed Oct. 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Comments on Proposed FPR Subpart. Publication B-203515. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sanchez, M. For Imagination and Love – The Permanence of the Mexican Father Who Fathers at a Distance. Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K. “Investing in the Pain of Student Debt Is a Tough but Tempting Play.” New York Times, Feb 09, 2017, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Spacecraft and Rockets
AbbreviationJ. Spacecr. Rockets
ISSN (print)0022-4650
ISSN (online)1533-6794
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Aerospace Engineering

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