How to format your references using the Asia Pacific Family Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia Pacific Family Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Stairs IH. Pulsars in binary systems: probing binary stellar evolution and general relativity. Science. 2004;304:547–52.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Parish MM, Littlewood PB. Non-saturating magnetoresistance in heavily disordered semiconductors. Nature. 2003;426:162–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lykotrafitis G, Rosakis AJ, Ravichandran G. Self-healing pulse-like shear ruptures in the laboratory. Science. 2006;313:1765–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. von Ahn L, Maurer B, McMillen C, Abraham D, Blum M. reCAPTCHA: human-based character recognition via Web security measures. Science. 2008;321:1465–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Matthews GG. Cellular Physiology of Nerve and Muscle. Malden, MA USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; 2002.
An edited book
1. Bertail P, Soulier P, Doukhan P, editors. Dependence in Probability and Statistics. New York, NY: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Deshmukh AS, Aminabhavi TM. Pharmaceutical Applications of Various Natural Gums Natural gums. In: Ramawat KG, Mérillon J-M, editors. Polysaccharides: Bioactivity and Biotechnology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 1933–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia Pacific Family Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Hunting For Living Fossils In Indonesian Waters [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Internal Revenue Service: 2001 Tax Filing Season, Systems Modernization, and Security of Electronic Filing. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Apr. Report No.: GAO-01-595T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Filomena TP. Technology portfolio and capacity expansion under uncertainty [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kishkovsky S. The Bolshoi Tries Partnering With a Friend From America. New York Times. 2007 Feb 11;AR10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia Pacific Family Medicine
AbbreviationAsia Pac. Fam. Med.
ISSN (online)1447-056X
ScopeFamily Practice
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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