How to format your references using the Asia Pacific Family Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia Pacific Family Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. van Meer G. Cell biology. The different hues of lipid rafts. Science. 2002;296:855–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Verchère A, Menon AK. Structural biology: Lipid gymnastics. Nature. 2015;524:420–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Gershenfeld N, Samouhos S, Nordman B. Engineering. Intelligent infrastructure for energy efficiency. Science. 2010;327:1086–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hennige SJ, Morrison CL, Form AU, Büscher J, Kamenos NA, Roberts JM. Self-recognition in corals facilitates deep-sea habitat engineering. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6782.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kuzmeski M. The Connectors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1. Murakami Y, Lin D, editors. Worldwide Language Service Infrastructure: Second International Workshop, WLSI 2015, Kyoto, Japan, January 22-23, 2015. Revised Selected Papers. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Delfino M, Persico D. Unfolding the Potential of ICT for SRL Development. In: Carneiro R, Lefrere P, Steffens K, Underwood J, editors. Self-Regulated Learning in Technology Enhanced Learning Environments: A European Perspective. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2011. p. 53–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia Pacific Family Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Spectacular New Image Shows Planet Formation In Incredible Detail [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Social Security: Telephone Access Enhanced at Field Offices Under Demonstration Project. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Feb. Report No.: HEHS-96-70.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Shina YE. Youth under the care of the child welfare and juvenile justice systems: A grant proposal for crossover youth [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly DA. Overseas, the Shock of the Surcharge. New York Times. 2006 Feb 19;56.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia Pacific Family Medicine
AbbreviationAsia Pac. Fam. Med.
ISSN (online)1447-056X
ScopeFamily Practice
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles