How to format your references using the Journal of Occupational Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Occupational Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grossniklaus, U. (2009). Plant science. Paternal patterning cue. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5920), 1439–1440.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mizuno, T., & Kubo, H. (2013). Overview of active cesium contamination of freshwater fish in Fukushima and Eastern Japan. Scientific Reports, 3, 1742.
A journal article with 3 authors
Verschuren, D., Laird, K. R., & Cumming, B. F. (2000). Rainfall and drought in equatorial east Africa during the past 1,100 years. Nature, 403(6768), 410–414.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Santoro, G. E., Martonák, R., Tosatti, E., & Car, R. (2002). Theory of quantum annealing of an Ising spin glass. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5564), 2427–2430.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smirnov, B. M. (2010). Cluster Processes in Gases and Plasmas. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Golinelli, G. M. (Ed.). (2015). Cultural Heritage and Value Creation: Towards New Pathways. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Latting, J. W., & Spritzer, C. E. (2016). Sports Medicine of the Foot & Ankle, the Role of Imaging. In V. Valderrabano & M. Easley (Eds.), Foot and Ankle Sports Orthopaedics (pp. 49–61). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Occupational Science.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, August 29). Ranked: The 42 Laziest Dog Breeds In America. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). [Comments on STURA Act’s Effects on Funding for Los Angeles Metrorail System] (No. B-226887). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kino, M. Y. (2015). My Concierge MD, Inc. a business plan (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. (2015, March 22). Artifacts From a Battle That Never Was. New York Times, p. WE10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grossniklaus, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Grossniklaus, 2009; Mizuno & Kubo, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mizuno & Kubo, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Verschuren, Laird, & Cumming, 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Santoro, Martonák, Tosatti, & Car, 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Occupational Science
AbbreviationJ. Occup. Sci.
ISSN (print)1442-7591
ISSN (online)2158-1576
ScopeSocial Sciences (miscellaneous)
Sociology and Political Science

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