How to format your references using the Journal of Occupational Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Occupational Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rogers, C. S. (2000). Confounding factors in coral reef recovery. Science (New York, N.Y.), 289(5478), 391b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ceballos, G., & Ehrlich, P. R. (2002). Mammal population losses and the extinction crisis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5569), 904–907.
A journal article with 3 authors
Olff, H., Ritchie, M. E., & Prins, H. H. T. (2002). Global environmental controls of diversity in large herbivores. Nature, 415(6874), 901–904.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yamamoto, Y., Fukushima, T., Suna, Y., Ishii, N., Saeki, A., Seki, S., Tagawa, S., Taniguchi, M., Kawai, T., & Aida, T. (2006). Photoconductive coaxial nanotubes of molecularly connected electron donor and acceptor layers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5806), 1761–1764.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Good, P. I. (2013). Introduction to Statistics Through Resampling Methods and R. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Paneni, F. (2015). Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease: A Guide to Clinical Management (F. Cosentino, Ed.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Smith, D. T., & Pratt, J. R. (2013). Measurement of the Gold-Gold Bond Rupture Force at 4 K in a Single-Atom Chain Using Photon-Momentum-Based Force Calibration. In G. A. Shaw, B. C. Prorok, & L. A. Starman (Eds.), MEMS and Nanotechnology, Volume 6: Proceedings of the 2012 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics (pp. 25–29). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Occupational Science.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2016, June 30). This Lacewing Bacterium Kills Only Males. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Freight Railroads: Highlights of GAO Report on Freight Rail Industry Performance, Competition, and Capacity (GAO-07-207R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Skiold-Hanlin, S. (2015). Functional and Ecological Aspects of the Mucus Trails of the Freshwater Gastropod Elimia potosiensis [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, L. (2005, December 1). The Multimedia Frank Gehry Now in Cardboard and on Film. New York Times, F3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rogers, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Ceballos & Ehrlich, 2002; Rogers, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ceballos & Ehrlich, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Olff et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yamamoto et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Occupational Science
AbbreviationJ. Occup. Sci.
ISSN (print)1442-7591
ISSN (online)2158-1576
ScopeSocial Sciences (miscellaneous)
Sociology and Political Science

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