How to format your references using the Journal of Occupational Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Occupational Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alvarez, M. (2007). System-ready scientists. Nature, 447(7144), 612.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stanley, S., & Bloxham, J. (2004). Convective-region geometry as the cause of Uranus’ and Neptune’s unusual magnetic fields. Nature, 428(6979), 151–153.
A journal article with 3 authors
Müller, K., Faeh, C., & Diederich, F. (2007). Fluorine in pharmaceuticals: looking beyond intuition. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5846), 1881–1886.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chekeni, F. B., Elliott, M. R., Sandilos, J. K., Walk, S. F., Kinchen, J. M., Lazarowski, E. R., Armstrong, A. J., Penuela, S., Laird, D. W., Salvesen, G. S., Isakson, B. E., Bayliss, D. A., & Ravichandran, K. S. (2010). Pannexin 1 channels mediate “find-me” signal release and membrane permeability during apoptosis. Nature, 467(7317), 863–867.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Orford, J. (2012). Addiction Dilemmas. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Wang, L. K., Shammas, N. K., & Hung, Y.-T. (Eds.). (2007). Biosolids Treatment Processes (Vol. 6). Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Scuderi, E., Parrinello, R. E., Izal, D., Perrucci, G. P., Fitzek, F. H. P., Palazzo, S., & Molinaro, A. (2010). A Mobile Platform for Measurements in Dynamic Topology Wireless Networks. In D. Giusto, A. Iera, G. Morabito, & L. Atzori (Eds.), The Internet of Things: 20th Tyrrhenian Workshop on Digital Communications (pp. 49–57). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Occupational Science.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, October 6). California May Suffer A 35-Year-Long Megadrought If Planet Continues To Warm. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). Review of FAA’s Collegiate Training Initiative as Mandated in the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (GAO-12-996R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pearson, D. (2014). A High-Level Fuzzy Logic Guidance System for an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) Tasked to Perform an Autonomous Launch and Recovery (ALR) of an Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) [Doctoral dissertation]. Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. (2017, March 15). A Westchester Town With Acres of Open Land. New York Times, RE8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alvarez, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Alvarez, 2007; Stanley & Bloxham, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stanley & Bloxham, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Müller et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Chekeni et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Occupational Science
AbbreviationJ. Occup. Sci.
ISSN (print)1442-7591
ISSN (online)2158-1576
ScopeSocial Sciences (miscellaneous)
Sociology and Political Science

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