How to format your references using the Journal of Occupational Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Occupational Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Basri, G. (2006). Astronomy. Big fields on small stars. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5761), 618–619.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wasan, D. T., & Nikolov, A. D. (2003). Spreading of nanofluids on solids. Nature, 423(6936), 156–159.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barber, V. A., Juday, G. P., & Finney, B. P. (2000). Reduced growth of Alaskan white spruce in the twentieth century from temperature-induced drought stress. Nature, 405(6787), 668–673.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bowen, G. J., Beerling, D. J., Koch, P. L., Zachos, J. C., & Quattlebaum, T. (2004). A humid climate state during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum. Nature, 432(7016), 495–499.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. (2003). Guidelines for Analyzing and Managing the Security Vulnerabilities of Fixed Chemical Sites. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lee, R. (Ed.). (2012). Software Engineering Research,Management and Applications 2011 (Vol. 377). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Palacián, J. F., & Yanguas, P. (2006). From the circular to the spatial elliptic restricted three-body problem. In A. Celletti & S. Ferraz-Mello (Eds.), Periodic, Quasi-Periodic and Chaotic Motions in Celestial Mechanics: Theory and Applications: Selected papers from the Fourth Meeting on Celestial Mechanics, CELMEC IV San Martino al Cimino (Italy), 11–16 September 2005 (pp. 81–99). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Occupational Science.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, January 15). Ancient Toolmaking May Have Driven the Evolution of Human Language. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1984). The Unit Status and Identity Report (UNITREP) System--What It Does and Does Not Measure (NSIAD-84-39). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ruiz-Resto, J. V. (2016). The Effects of Technical and Imagery-based Instruction on Aspiring Performing Artists’ Acquisition of Learning Newly Composed Pieces and Improvisation and on Listeners’ Perceived Expressivity [Doctoral dissertation]. University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2012, November 29). N.F.L.-Approved Therapist For Fans Draws Scrutiny. New York Times, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Basri, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Basri, 2006; Wasan & Nikolov, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wasan & Nikolov, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Barber et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Bowen et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Occupational Science
AbbreviationJ. Occup. Sci.
ISSN (print)1442-7591
ISSN (online)2158-1576
ScopeSocial Sciences (miscellaneous)
Sociology and Political Science

Other styles