How to format your references using the Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Davis, R. J. (2003). Chemistry. All that glitters is not Au0. Science 301, 926–927.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weber, T., and Deutsch, C. (2012). Oceanic nitrogen reservoir regulated by plankton diversity and ocean circulation. Nature 489, 419–422.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, H., Chen, J., and Yu, X. (2007). Ubiquitin-binding protein RAP80 mediates BRCA1-dependent DNA damage response. Science 316, 1202–1205.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu, Z. R., Zhang, H., Wu, J. Q., Zhou, J. J., and Ji, Y. H. (2014). PKA phosphorylation reshapes the pharmacological kinetics of BmK AS, a unique site-4 sodium channel-specific modulator. Sci. Rep. 4, 3721.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG (2013). Funding Atlas 2012. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Raso, J., and Heinz, V. eds. (2006). Pulsed Electric Fields Technology for the Food Industry: Fundamentals and Applications. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Dimitrakakis, C. (2010). “Efficient Methods for Near-Optimal Sequential Decision Making under Uncertainty,” in Interactive Collaborative Information Systems Studies in Computational Intelligence., eds. R. Babuška and F. C. A. Groen (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 125–153.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017). The Science Behind Why This Photograph Looks Fake. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003). Highway Safety: Research Continues on a Variety of Factors That Contribute to Motor Vehicle Crashes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abrahamian, A. (2012). Diagnosis and treatment of childhood depression: A resource for pediatricians.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017). The Son of Joseph. New York Times, C12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Davis, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Davis, 2003; Weber and Deutsch, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weber and Deutsch, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
AbbreviationFront. Bioeng. Biotechnol.
ISSN (online)2296-4185
Biomedical Engineering

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