How to format your references using the Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ovid’ko, I. A. (2002). Materials science. Deformation of nanostructures. Science 295, 2386.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chiarugi, A., and Moskowitz, M. A. (2002). Cell biology. PARP-1--a perpetrator of apoptotic cell death? Science 297, 200–201.
A journal article with 3 authors
Renvall, V., Nangini, C., and Hari, R. (2014). All that glitters is not BOLD: inconsistencies in functional MRI. Sci. Rep. 4, 3920.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Agarwal, N., Lamichhane, G., Gupta, R., Nolan, S., and Bishai, W. R. (2009). Cyclic AMP intoxication of macrophages by a Mycobacterium tuberculosis adenylate cyclase. Nature 460, 98–102.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bahgat, G. (2011). Energy Security. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Puglisi, J. ed. (2009). Biophysics and the Challenges of Emerging Threats. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Ellis, J. (2014). “Supersymmetric fits after the Higgs discovery and implications for model building,” in Supersymmetry After the Higgs Discovery, eds. I. Antoniadis and D. Ghilencea (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 59–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016). Here’s How The Brain Develops A Taste For Lying. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008). NASA Workforce: Briefing on National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Use of Term Appointments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tran, A. (2012). A psychoeducational program on hoarding within the Vietnamese community: Grant writing proposal.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B., Green, J., and Soloski, A. (2017). Too Soon? Or Right on Cue? New York Times, AR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ovid’ko, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Chiarugi and Moskowitz, 2002; Ovid’ko, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chiarugi and Moskowitz, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Agarwal et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
AbbreviationFront. Bioeng. Biotechnol.
ISSN (online)2296-4185
Biomedical Engineering

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