How to format your references using the Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Steig, E. J. (2001). Paleoclimate. No two latitudes alike. Science 293, 2015–2016.
A journal article with 2 authors
Field, B., and Osbourn, A. E. (2008). Metabolic diversification--independent assembly of operon-like gene clusters in different plants. Science 320, 543–547.
A journal article with 3 authors
Song, C., Havlin, S., and Makse, H. A. (2005). Self-similarity of complex networks. Nature 433, 392–395.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Donley, E. A., Claussen, N. R., Thompson, S. T., and Wieman, C. E. (2002). Atom-molecule coherence in a Bose-Einstein condensate. Nature 417, 529–533.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gelbaum, B. R. (1995). Modern Real and Complex Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cheng, K. S., and Romero, G. E. eds. (2005). Multiwavelength Approach to Unidentified Gamma-Ray Sources: A Second Workshop on the Nature of the High-Energy Unidentified Sources. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Vassilakis, V., Panaousis, E., and Mouratidis, H. (2016). “Security Challenges of Small Cell as a Service in Virtualized Mobile Edge Computing Environments,” in Information Security Theory and Practice: 10th IFIP WG 11.2 International Conference, WISTP 2016, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, September 26–27, 2016, Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. S. Foresti and J. Lopez (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 70–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015). Whether You Respond To A Placebo Can Indicate If You’ll Respond To Antidepressants. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002). Answers to Independence Standard Questions (Superseded by GAO-12-331G) GAO-02-870G, July 2002. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jha, J. S. (2013). [3+2] Cycloaddition Reaction of Gem-Dicyanoepoxide and Electrophilic Reaction of Ethyl Atropate.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K. (1972). Is Anybody Here from Albion, Nebraska ? Is Everybody?; Albion, Nebraska -- Ta Dum! -- Celebrates in Great Plains Style. New York Times, TRAVEL AND RESORTSXX1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Steig, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Steig, 2001; Field and Osbourn, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Field and Osbourn, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Donley et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
AbbreviationFront. Bioeng. Biotechnol.
ISSN (online)2296-4185
Biomedical Engineering

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