How to format your references using the Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Loder, N. (2000). Uproar at Oxford as suspended professor returns to work. Nature 404, 214.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miller, M. W., and Williams, E. S. (2003). Prion disease: horizontal prion transmission in mule deer. Nature 425, 35–36.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sousa, T., Marques, G. M., and Domingos, T. (2009). Comment on “Energy uptake and allocation during ontogeny.” Science 325, 1206; author reply 1206.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Emmerson, M. C., Solan, M., Emes, C., Paterson, D. M., and Raffaelli, D. (2001). Consistent patterns and the idiosyncratic effects of biodiversity in marine ecosystems. Nature 411, 73–77.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hersent, O. (2010). IP Telephony. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Yue, G., Zhang, H., Zhao, C., and Luo, Z. eds. (2010). Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lu, K. H., Klopp, A. H., Soliman, P. T., and Schmandt, R. E. (2013). “Increased Adiposity and Endometrial Cancer Risk,” in Adipose Tissue and Cancer, ed. M. G. Kolonin (New York, NY: Springer), 53–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). This Headset Lets You Control Your TV Using The Power Of Your Mind. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005). Space Acquisitions: Stronger Development Practices and Investment Planning Needed to Address Continuing Problems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simmons, C. (2008). Correlates and predictors of cognitive complexity among counseling and social work students in graduate training programs.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1993). David Gergen, Master of THE GAME. New York Times, 664.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Loder, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Loder, 2000; Miller and Williams, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Miller and Williams, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Emmerson et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
AbbreviationFront. Bioeng. Biotechnol.
ISSN (online)2296-4185
Biomedical Engineering

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