How to format your references using the Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Colliex, C. (2012). Materials science. Watching solution growth of nanoparticles in graphene cells. Science 336, 44–45.
A journal article with 2 authors
Swaddle, J. P., and Biewener, A. A. (2000). Exercise and reduced muscle mass in starlings. Nature 406, 585–586.
A journal article with 3 authors
Steinacher, M., Joos, F., and Stocker, T. F. (2013). Allowable carbon emissions lowered by multiple climate targets. Nature 499, 197–201.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rosa, P. F. S., Adriano, C., Garitezi, T. M., Grant, T., Fisk, Z., Urbano, R. R., et al. (2014). Site specific spin dynamics in BaFe2As2: tuning the ground state by orbital differentiation. Sci. Rep. 4, 6543.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heimer, T., and Werner, M. (2004). Die Zukunft der Mikrosystemtechnik. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Abramovich, D. (2008). Enumerative Invariants in Algebraic Geometry and String Theory: Lectures given at the C.I.M.E. Summer School held in Cetraro, Italy June 6–11, 2005. , eds. M. Mariño, M. Thaddeus, R. Vakil, K. Behrend, and M. Manetti Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Trabucchi, M., Briata, P., Filipowicz, W., Ramos, A., Gherzi, R., and Rosenfeld, M. G. (2010). “KSRP Promotes the Maturation of a Group of miRNA Precuresors,” in Regulation of microRNAs Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology., ed. H. Großhans (New York, NY: Springer US), 36–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Genetic Tweak Makes Mouse Brain Cells Behave Like Primates’. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000). Financial Audit: District of Columbia Highway Trust Fund’s Fiscal Year 1999 and 1998 Financial Statements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bebianno Simoes, M. (2012). Work and social activism in the life stories of Latina domestic workers.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007). Justices Express Skepticism in a Discrimination Case. New York Times, A26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Colliex, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Colliex, 2012, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Swaddle and Biewener, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Rosa et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
AbbreviationFront. Bioeng. Biotechnol.
ISSN (online)2296-4185
Biomedical Engineering

Other styles