How to format your references using the Journal of Translational Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Translational Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Shalaev VM. Physics. Transforming light. Science. 2008;322:384–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lister AM, Sher AV. The origin and evolution of the woolly mammoth. Science. 2001;294:1094–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Goes S, Capitanio FA, Morra G. Evidence of lower-mantle slab penetration phases in plate motions. Nature. 2008;451:981–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Minami K, Okamoto K, Doi K, Harano K, Noiri E, Nakamura E. siRNA delivery targeting to the lung via agglutination-induced accumulation and clearance of cationic tetraamino fullerene. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4916.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Lane MJ. The Mission-Driven Venture. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
1. Nguyen NT, Trawiński B, Jung JJ, editors. New Challenges for Intelligent Information and Database Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lu C, Mai Y-W, Shen Y-G. The Origin of Superhardness in Nanocomposite Coatings: Analysis of Nanoindentation and Scratch Tests. In: Bai YL, Zheng QS, Wei YG, editors. IUTAM Symposium on Mechanical Behavior and Micro-Mechanics of Nanostructured Materials: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium held in Beijing, China, June 27–30, 2005. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007. p. 39–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Translational Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. If We Find ET, Don’t Talk To It, Says The Man Who Wants To Find ET [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. International Space Station: Approaches for Ensuring Utilization through 2020 Are Reasonable but Should Be Revisited as NASA Gains More Knowledge of On-Orbit Performance. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 Dec. Report No.: GAO-12-162.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Moody VJ. Examining leadership styles and employee engagement in the public and private sectors [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; Given a Good Lead, Clinton Is No Longer Talking Tough. New York Times. 1992 Sep 18;A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Translational Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Transl. Med.
ISSN (online)1479-5876
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Medicine

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