How to format your references using the Journal of Translational Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Translational Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Grünbaum D. Behavior. Align in the sand. Science. 2006;312:1320–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kulkarni RN, Kahn CR. Molecular biology. HNFs--linking the liver and pancreatic islets in diabetes. Science. 2004;303:1311–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Wang X, Rickert M, Garcia KC. Structure of the quaternary complex of interleukin-2 with its alpha, beta, and gammac receptors. Science. 2005;310:1159–63.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wolfrum C, Asilmaz E, Luca E, Friedman JM, Stoffel M. Foxa2 regulates lipid metabolism and ketogenesis in the liver during fasting and in diabetes. Nature. 2004;432:1027–32.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Halstead P. Two Oxen Ahead. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2014.
An edited book
1. Franch X, Ghose AK, Lewis GA, Bhiri S, editors. Service-Oriented Computing: 12th International Conference, ICSOC 2014, Paris, France, November 3-6, 2014. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Wang JG, Yang J. The New Membership of Loan Club—P2P Online Lending. In: Yang J, editor. Financing without Bank Loans: New Alternatives for Funding SMEs in China. Singapore: Springer; 2016. p. 55–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Translational Medicine.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Building Has Started On The Extremely Large Telescope. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. NASA-Ames Research Center Should Not Have Awarded Computational Services Contract to SBA and Technology Development of California. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983 Jun. Report No.: AFMD-83-40.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. McCarter KM. The effect of auditory stimulation on learners with different learning styles [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. Court to Hear Challenge From Muslims Held After 9/11. New York Times. 2008 Jun 17;A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Translational Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Transl. Med.
ISSN (online)1479-5876
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Medicine

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