How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuroengineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuroengineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sheng, P. (2006). Applied physics. Waves on the horizon. Science 313, 1399–1400.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gaensler, B. M., and Frail, D. A. (2000). A large age for the pulsar B1757-24 from an upper limit on its proper motion. Nature 406, 158–160.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zou, H., Zindler, A., and Niu, Y. (2002). Constraints on melt movement beneath the East Pacific Rise from 230Th-238U disequilibrium. Science 295, 107–110.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pfau, T., Spence, A., Starke, S., Ferrari, M., and Wilson, A. (2009). Modern riding style improves horse racing times. Science 325, 289.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Landragin, F. (2013). Man-Machine Dialogue. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Matsumoto, A. (2016). Game Theory and Its Applications. 1st ed. 2016. , ed. F. Szidarovszky Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Yang, J., and Liu, H. (2015). “Cadmium Selenide–Platinum Nanocomposites with a Core–Shell Construction,” in Metal-Based Composite Nanomaterials, ed. H. Liu (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 115–141.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuroengineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Blocking Inflammation For Too Long Could Be Bad For Your Heart. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000). School Facilities: Construction Expenditures Have Grown Significantly in Recent Years. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mills Campbell, D. (2017). Exploratory Inquiry: Fundraising at Historically Black Colleges and Universities to Reduce Resource Dependence.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Loomis, G. (2013). Bringing Fresh Interpretations to Vintage Verdi and Handel. New York Times, 0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sheng, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Gaensler and Frail, 2000; Sheng, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gaensler and Frail, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Pfau et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuroengineering
AbbreviationFront. Neuroeng.
ISSN (online)1662-6443
Biomedical Engineering
Neuroscience (miscellaneous)

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