How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuroengineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuroengineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon, D. (2001). All systems go for neuroscience. Nature 414, 4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maslin, M., and Austin, P. (2012). Uncertainty: Climate models at their limit? Nature 486, 183–184.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koskinen, M. T., Haugen, T. O., and Primmer, C. R. (2002). Contemporary fisherian life-history evolution in small salmonid populations. Nature 419, 826–830.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Boddey, J. A., Hodder, A. N., Günther, S., Gilson, P. R., Patsiouras, H., Kapp, E. A., et al. (2010). An aspartyl protease directs malaria effector proteins to the host cell. Nature 463, 627–631.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quadbeck-Seeger, H.-J. (2007). World of the Elements. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Mukherjee, S., Aarts, R. M., Roovers, R., Widdershoven, F., and Ouwerkerk, M. eds. (2006). AmIware Hardware Technology Drivers of Ambient Intelligence. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
van Donk, D. P., and van der Vaart, T. (2016). “A Critical Review of Surveys in Supply Chain Integration Research,” in Developments in Logistics and Supply Chain Management: Past, Present and Future, eds. K. S. Pawar, H. Rogers, A. Potter, and M. Naim (London: Palgrave Macmillan UK), 38–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuroengineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Schizophrenia Revealed To Be 8 Genetically Distinct Disorders. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015). James Webb Space Telescope: Project on Track but May Benefit from Improved Contractor Data to Better Understand Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chung, Y.-K. (2010). A comparison of particle swarm optimization algorithms in data clustering.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2016). Robert A. Wilson, 94; Ran a Haven for Poets. New York Times, D7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gershon, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Gershon, 2001; Maslin and Austin, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Maslin and Austin, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Boddey et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuroengineering
AbbreviationFront. Neuroeng.
ISSN (online)1662-6443
Biomedical Engineering
Neuroscience (miscellaneous)

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