How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuroengineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuroengineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pielke, R. A., Sr (2005). Atmospheric science. Land use and climate change. Science 310, 1625–1626.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hidalgo, C., and Donoso, P. (2011). Cell signaling. Getting to the heart of mechanotransduction. Science 333, 1388–1390.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wechsler, T., Newman, S., and West, S. C. (2011). Aberrant chromosome morphology in human cells defective for Holliday junction resolution. Nature 471, 642–646.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ingraham, J. M., Deng, Z. D., Martinez, J. J., Trumbo, B. A., Mueller, R. P., and Weiland, M. A. (2014). Feasibility of tracking fish with acoustic transmitters in the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace. Sci. Rep. 4, 4090.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O’Kelly, M., and Ratitch, B. (2014). Clinical Trials with Missing Data. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Adesina, A. M., Tihan, T., Fuller, C. E., and Poussaint, T. Y. eds. (2010). Atlas of Pediatric Brain Tumors. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Orlov, Y. V., and Aguilar, L. T. (2014). “Elements of Nonsmooth Analysis,” in Advanced H∞ Control: Towards Nonsmooth Theory and Applications, ed. L. T. Aguilar (New York, NY: Springer), 67–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuroengineering.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016). See A Rare Monkey “Chatter” To A Camera. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987). Digests of Unpublished Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. III, No. 9. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ruby, C. A. (2017). Application of Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) to Remotely Operated Vehicle (Rov) Video Data for Enhanced Geospatial Analysis of Deep Sea Environments.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2009). Michael Goldsmith, 58; Raised Awareness of A.L.S. New York Times, D9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pielke, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Hidalgo and Donoso, 2011; Pielke, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hidalgo and Donoso, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Ingraham et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuroengineering
AbbreviationFront. Neuroeng.
ISSN (online)1662-6443
Biomedical Engineering
Neuroscience (miscellaneous)

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