How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuroengineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuroengineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seife, C. (2000). MATERIALS SCIENCE: Long-Wavelength Lasers Sniff Out New Uses. Science 290, 916–917.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pilkey, O. H., and Cooper, J. A. G. (2004). Climate. Society and sea level rise. Science 303, 1781–1782.
A journal article with 3 authors
Scarborough, C. L., Ferrari, J., and Godfray, H. C. J. (2005). Aphid protected from pathogen by endosymbiont. Science 310, 1781.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhou, D., Guo, J., Xu, L., Gao, S., Lin, Q., Wu, Q., et al. (2014). Establishment and application of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) system for detection of cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane. Sci. Rep. 4, 4912.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stenning, A., Smith, A., Rochovská, A., and Świa̧tek, D. (2010). Domesticating Neo-Liberalism. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Behrndt, J., Förster, K.-H., Langer, H., and Trunk, C. eds. (2009). Spectral Theory in Inner Product Spaces and Applications: 6th Workshop on Operator Theory in Krein Spaces and Operator Polynomials, Berlin, December 2006. Basel: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Ufuktepe, Ü., and Yılmaz, B. (2010). “Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis with Petri Nets,” in Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2010: International Conference, Fukuoka, Japan, March 23-26, 2010, Proceedings, Part IV Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. D. Taniar, O. Gervasi, B. Murgante, E. Pardede, and B. O. Apduhan (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 53–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuroengineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Teen Citizen Scientists are Giving us Inside Knowledge to Fight Disease. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000). Inspectors General: Information on Resources and Selected Accomplishments of 18 Inspectors General. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Edwards, D. H. (2017). Why Do They Get High?: An Examination of Social Bond Theory and Substance Use in College.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Hubbard, B. (2017). Another Casualty of the Syrian War: Drinking Water in Damascus. New York Times, A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Seife, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Seife, 2000; Pilkey and Cooper, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pilkey and Cooper, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhou et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuroengineering
AbbreviationFront. Neuroeng.
ISSN (online)1662-6443
Biomedical Engineering
Neuroscience (miscellaneous)

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