How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuroengineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuroengineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Frenkel, D. (2006). Materials science. Colloidal encounters: a matter of attraction. Science 314, 768–769.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gillett, N. P., and Thompson, D. W. J. (2003). Simulation of recent southern hemisphere climate change. Science 302, 273–275.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xuereb, A., Ulbricht, H., and Paternostro, M. (2013). Optomechanical interface for probing matter-wave coherence. Sci. Rep. 3, 3378.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Saadoun, S., Papadopoulos, M. C., Hara-Chikuma, M., and Verkman, A. S. (2005). Impairment of angiogenesis and cell migration by targeted aquaporin-1 gene disruption. Nature 434, 786–792.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tolin, D. F., Worden, B. L., Wootton, B. M., and Gilliam, C. M. (2017). CBT for Hoarding Disorder. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sorell, M. ed. (2009). Forensics in Telecommunications, Information and Multimedia: Second International Conference, e-Forensics 2009, Adelaide, Australia, January 19-21, 2009, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Engelhardt, K., and Moses, Y. (2005). “Safe Composition of Distributed Programs Communicating over Order-Preserving Imperfect Channels,” in Distributed Computing – IWDC 2005: 7th International Workshop, Kharagpur, India, December 27-30, 2005. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. A. Pal, A. D. Kshemkalyani, R. Kumar, and A. Gupta (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 32–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuroengineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Scientists Discover Evidence of Mercury’s Explosive Volcanic History. IFLScience. Available at:’s-explosive-volcanic-history/ [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990). Energy R&D: DOE’s Allocation of Funds for Basic and Applied Research and Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garfield-Kabbara, J. N. (2014). Through the Portal of Shame: A Path Toward Self-Love for Fatherless Daughters Living in Patriarchy.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2017). Hit Show? No, but Close Enough. New York Times, B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Frenkel, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Gillett and Thompson, 2003; Frenkel, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gillett and Thompson, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Saadoun et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuroengineering
AbbreviationFront. Neuroeng.
ISSN (online)1662-6443
Biomedical Engineering
Neuroscience (miscellaneous)

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