How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuroengineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuroengineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Elliott, T. (2014). Planetary science. Speed metal. Science 344, 1086–1087.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gunn, P. P., and Joiner, S. D. (2009). Certificates should be strengthened. Science 323, 1289–90; author reply 1298-90.
A journal article with 3 authors
Regan, C. K., Craig, S. L., and Brauman, J. I. (2002). Steric effects and solvent effects in ionic reactions. Science 295, 2245–2247.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Affolder, R., Rizzo, I., Burgess, C., Bchir, A., and Lob-Levyt, J. (2007). A prescription for drug delivery. Nature 449, 170–172.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Voldman, S. H. (2014). ESD. Chichester, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Uhlig, T., Sellmaier, F., and Schmidhuber, M. eds. (2015). Spacecraft Operations. Vienna: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mukati, M. A. (2012). “A Heuristic Approach of Code Assignment to Obtain an Optimal FSM Design,” in Advanced Information Technology in Education Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing., ed. K. S. Thaung (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 23–31.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuroengineering.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016). Professor Brian Cox Brought A Graph To Take On A Climate Change Denying Politician On Live TV. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992). Airspace System: Emerging Technologies May Offer Alternatives to the Instrument Landing System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
LeBlanc, D. C. (2008). The relationship between Information Technology project manager personality type and project success.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2016). Moscow Broadcast Tower Is Seen as Endangered. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Elliott, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gunn and Joiner, 2009; Elliott, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gunn and Joiner, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Affolder et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuroengineering
AbbreviationFront. Neuroeng.
ISSN (online)1662-6443
Biomedical Engineering
Neuroscience (miscellaneous)

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