How to format your references using the Journal of Thermal Spray Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Thermal Spray Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C.H. Sekercioglu, Ecology. Functional Extinctions of Bird Pollinators Cause Plant Declines, Science, 2011, 331(6020), p 1019–1020.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.E. Peters and R.R. Gaines, Formation of the “Great Unconformity” as a Trigger for the Cambrian Explosion, Nature, 2012, 484(7394), p 363–366.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.C. Loudon, N.D. Mathur, and P.A. Midgley, Charge-Ordered Ferromagnetic Phase in La(0.5)Ca(0.5)MnO3, Nature, 2002, 420(6917), p 797–800.
A journal article with 31 or more authors
C. Hanashima, S.C. Li, L. Shen, E. Lai, and G. Fishell, Foxg1 Suppresses Early Cortical Cell Fate, Science, 2004, 303(5654), p 56–59.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Lalanne, “Fatigue Damage,” (Chichester, UK), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
T. Lovat, R. Toomey, and N. Clement, Eds., “International Research Handbook on Values Education and Student Wellbeing,” (Dordrecht), Springer Netherlands, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Schugurensky and J.P. Myers, Informal Civic Learning Through Engagement in Local Democracy: The Case of the Seniors’ Task Force of Healthy City Toronto, Learning through Community: Exploring Participatory Practices, K. Church, N. Bascia, and E. Shragge, Eds., (Dordrecht), Springer Netherlands, 2008, p 73–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Thermal Spray Technology.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, “Mysterious Signals From Center Of The Milky Way Probably Pulsars Not Dark Matter,” IFLScience, IFLScience, 2017, Accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Railroad Safety: More FRA Oversight Needed to Ensure Rail Safety in Region 2,” (Washington, DC), U.S. Government Printing Office, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.X. Luo, “Theoretical Models of Olfactory Discrimination in Drosophila,” (New York, NY), Columbia University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
R.A. Oppel Jr. and R. Pérez-Peña, “Chicago Releases Videos of Police Shootings,” New York Times, 2016, p A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ref 1).
This sentence cites two references (Ref 1,2).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ref 1)
  • Three authors: (Ref 1)
  • Four or more authors: (Ref 1)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Thermal Spray Technology
AbbreviationJ. Therm. Spray Technol.
ISSN (print)1059-9630
ISSN (online)1544-1016
ScopeMaterials Chemistry
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Condensed Matter Physics

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