How to format your references using the Journal of Thermal Spray Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Thermal Spray Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Smith, Genomics: Genotyping Gets up to Speed, Nature, 2005, 435(7044), p 992.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.E. Filardi and R.G. Moyle, Single Origin of a Pan-Pacific Bird Group and Upstream Colonization of Australasia, Nature, 2005, 438(7065), p 216–219.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Arash, Q. Wang, and V.K. Varadan, Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotube/Polymer Composites, Sci. Rep., 2014, 4, p 6479.
A journal article with 31 or more authors
N. Gemelke, X. Zhang, C.-L. Hung, and C. Chin, In Situ Observation of Incompressible Mott-Insulating Domains in Ultracold Atomic Gases, Nature, 2009, 460(7258), p 995–998.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Sofronas, “Analytical Troubleshooting of Process Machinery and Pressure Vessels,” (Hoboken, NJ), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.
An edited book
G. Barthe, A. Datta, and S. Etalle, Eds., “Formal Aspects of Security and Trust: 8th International Workshop, FAST 2011, Leuven, Belgium, September 12-14, 2011. Revised Selected Papers,” (Berlin, Heidelberg), Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Glaßer, A. Pavan, A.L. Selman, and L. Zhang, Mitosis in Computational Complexity, Theory and Applications of Models of Computation: Third International Conference, TAMC 2006, Beijing, China, May 15-20, 2006. Proceedings, J.-Y. Cai, S.B. Cooper, and A. Li, Eds., (Berlin, Heidelberg), Springer, 2006, p 61–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Thermal Spray Technology.

Blog post
J. Davis, “Bacteria Found In Poop Is Linked To The Body Fat Surrounding Organs,” IFLScience, IFLScience, 2016, Accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Costly Requirements for Certain Control Towers, Navigation Aids, and Airport Lights,” (Washington, DC), U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
W. He, “A Comprehensive Analysis of Fracture Initiation and Propagation in Sandstones Based on Micro-Level Observation and Digital Imaging Correlation,” ( Lafayette, LA), University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, “My Son the Bureaucrat, My Dad the Gadfly,” New York Times, 2002, p 143.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ref 1).
This sentence cites two references (Ref 1,2).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ref 1)
  • Three authors: (Ref 1)
  • Four or more authors: (Ref 1)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Thermal Spray Technology
AbbreviationJ. Therm. Spray Technol.
ISSN (print)1059-9630
ISSN (online)1544-1016
ScopeMaterials Chemistry
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Condensed Matter Physics

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