How to format your references using the Journal of International Relations and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of International Relations and Development (JIRD). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rauchway, Eric (2009) ‘Recession Watch: Work for the greater good’, Nature 457(7232): 959–960.
A journal article with 2 authors
Holman, Matthew J. and Norman W. Murray (2005) ‘The use of transit timing to detect terrestrial-mass extrasolar planets’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 307(5713): 1288–1291.
A journal article with 3 authors
Béarez, Philippe, Thomas J. DeVries, and Luc Ortlieb (2003) ‘Comment on “Otolith delta18O record of mid-Holocene sea surface temperatures in Peru”’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 299(5604): 203; author reply 203.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ortega-Esteban, A., A.J. Pérez-Berná, R. Menéndez-Conejero, S.J. Flint, C. San Martín, and P.J. de Pablo (2013) ‘Monitoring dynamics of human adenovirus disassembly induced by mechanical fatigue’, Scientific reports 3: 1434.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shore, Steven N. (2005) The Tapestry of Modern Astrophysics, Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Obaidat, Mohammad S., George A. Tsihrintzis, and Joaquim Filipe, eds. (2012) e-Business and Telecommunications: 7th International Joint Conference, ICETE 2010, Athens, Greece, July 26-28, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhou, Jing and Changyun Wen (2008) ‘Decentralized Stabilization of Interconnected Systems’, in Changyun Wen, ed., Adaptive Backstepping Control of Uncertain Systems: Nonsmooth Nonlinearities, Interactions or Time-Variations, 65–79, Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of International Relations and Development.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise (2015) ‘Explainer: The Mysterious Dark Energy That Speeds The Universe’s Rate Of Expansion’, IFLScience available at (accessed 30 October, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981). ‘The Atlanta Region: Welcome to the Now South!’, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blumenfeld, Diana B. Policy Making and the U.S. Response to Global HIV/AIDS. Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, Mary J.O. ‘Two Momentous Occasions in New York History’. New York Times, April 29, C30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rauchway 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Rauchway 2009; Holman and Murray 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Holman and Murray 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Ortega-Esteban et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of International Relations and Development
AbbreviationJ. Int. Relat. Dev.
ISSN (print)1408-6980
ISSN (online)1581-1980
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles