How to format your references using the Journal of International Relations and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of International Relations and Development (JIRD). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ritvo, Harriet (2003) ‘Essays on science and society. Fighting for Thirlmere--the roots of environmentalism’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 300(5625): 1510–1511.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jin, Zhiwen and Jizheng Wang (2014) ‘PIN architecture for ultrasensitive organic thin film photoconductors’, Scientific reports 4: 5331.
A journal article with 3 authors
de Roode, Jacobus C., Thierry Lefèvre, and Mark D. Hunter (2013) ‘Ecology. Self-medication in animals’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 340(6129): 150–151.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Heppner, F.L. et al. (2001) ‘Prevention of scrapie pathogenesis by transgenic expression of anti-prion protein antibodies’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 294(5540): 178–182.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Teodorescu, Petre P., Wilhelm W. Kecs, and Antonela Toma (2013) Distribution Theory, Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Caragiannis, Ioannis et al., eds. (2013) Euro-Par 2012: Parallel Processing Workshops: BDMC, CGWS, HeteroPar, HiBB, OMHI, Paraphrase, PROPER, Resilience, UCHPC, VHPC, Rhodes Islands, Greece, August 27-31, 2012. Revised Selected Papers, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kobsa, Alfred (2007) ‘Generic User Modeling Systems’, in Peter Brusilovsky, Alfred Kobsa, and Wolfgang Nejdl, eds., The Adaptive Web: Methods and Strategies of Web Personalization, 136–154, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of International Relations and Development.

Blog post
Fang, Janet (2014) ‘A Solar Superstorm Nearly Hit The Earth’, IFLScience available at (accessed 30 October, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991). ‘Highway Safety: Interim Report on Safety Belt and Motorcycle Helmet Effectiveness’, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hidalgo, Fabian Light of Hope Recuperative Care Center, LLC: A Business Plan. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda ‘Supreme Court Alters Tone In a Discrimination Case’. New York Times, February 28, A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ritvo 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Ritvo 2003; Jin and Wang 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jin and Wang 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Heppner et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of International Relations and Development
AbbreviationJ. Int. Relat. Dev.
ISSN (print)1408-6980
ISSN (online)1581-1980
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles