How to format your references using the Journal of International Relations and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of International Relations and Development (JIRD). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaiser, Jocelyn (2005) ‘American Society of Gene Therapy meeting. Retroviral vectors: a double-edged sword’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 308(5729): 1735–1736.
A journal article with 2 authors
Conrado, Robert J. and Ramon Gonzalez (2014) ‘Chemistry. Envisioning the bioconversion of methane to liquid fuels’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 343(6171): 621–623.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dharmasiri, Nihal, Sunethra Dharmasiri, and Mark Estelle (2005) ‘The F-box protein TIR1 is an auxin receptor’, Nature 435(7041): 441–445.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wheeler, Michael J. et al. (2009) ‘Identification of the pollen self-incompatibility determinant in Papaver rhoeas’, Nature 459(7249): 992–995.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saksena, Franklin B. (2008) Color Atlas of Local and Systemic Signs of Cardiovascular Disease, Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Bähr, Mathias, ed. (2006) Brain Repair, Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Peterson, Gary W. and Kevin Ray Bush (2015) ‘Families and Adolescent Development’, in Thomas P. Gullotta, Robert W. Plant, and Melanie A. Evans, eds., Handbook of Adolescent Behavioral Problems: Evidence-Based Approaches to Prevention and Treatment, 45–69, Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of International Relations and Development.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo (2016) ‘One Third Of Humanity Can’t See The Milky Way In The Night Sky’, IFLScience available at (accessed 30 October, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007). ‘Freight Railroads: Electronic Supplement on Rates and Other Industry Trends, 1985-2005 (GAO-07-292SP), an E-supplement to GAO-07-291R’, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCallister, Karri I Didn’t Mean to Show the Dirt. Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, Kelly ‘Snack Like a Surfer’. New York Times, July 4, NJ10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kaiser 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Kaiser 2005; Conrado and Gonzalez 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Conrado and Gonzalez 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Wheeler et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of International Relations and Development
AbbreviationJ. Int. Relat. Dev.
ISSN (print)1408-6980
ISSN (online)1581-1980
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

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