How to format your references using the Journal of International Relations and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of International Relations and Development (JIRD). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Honjo, Tasuku (2004) ‘Obituary: Yasutomi Nishizuka (1932-2004)’, Nature 432(7020): 966.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, Heng and Richard Durbin (2011) ‘Inference of human population history from individual whole-genome sequences’, Nature 475(7357): 493–496.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gómez-Llobregat, Jordi, Javier Buceta, and Ramon Reigada (2013) ‘Interplay of cytoskeletal activity and lipid phase stability in dynamic protein recruitment and clustering’, Scientific reports 3: 2608.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sucena, Elio, Isabelle Delon, Isaac Jones, François Payre, and David L. Stern (2003) ‘Regulatory evolution of shavenbaby/ovo underlies multiple cases of morphological parallelism’, Nature 424(6951): 935–938.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hansen, Steen, Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard, and Knut Rasmussen (2011) Introduction to Pharmaceutical Chemical Analysis, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Mohamed, Otmane Ait, César Muñoz, and Sofiène Tahar, eds. (2008) Theorem Proving in Higher Order Logics: 21st International Conference, TPHOLs 2008, Montreal, Canada, August 18-21, 2008. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Leemis, Lawrence M. (2010) ‘Variate Generation in Reliability’, in Javier Faulin, Angel A. Juan, Sebastián Martorell, and José-Emmanuel Ramírez-Márquez, eds., Simulation Methods for Reliability and Availability of Complex Systems, 85–103, Springer Series in Reliability Engineering, London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of International Relations and Development.

Blog post
Taub, Ben (2016) ‘Soldiers’ Brains Electrocuted To Make Them More Attentive’, IFLScience available at (accessed 30 October, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981). ‘Stronger Actions Needed To Recover $730 Million in Defaulted National Direct Student Loans’, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Colker, Jay O. A grounded theory approach to developing a theory of leadership through a case study of ShoreBank. Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda ‘Justices Are Urged to Dismiss Padilla Case’. New York Times, December 18, 114.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Honjo 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Honjo 2004; Li and Durbin 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li and Durbin 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Sucena et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of International Relations and Development
AbbreviationJ. Int. Relat. Dev.
ISSN (print)1408-6980
ISSN (online)1581-1980
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

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