How to format your references using the Journal of International Relations and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of International Relations and Development (JIRD). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chapman, Tim (2004) ‘Mining the proteome’, Nature 430(6995): 109.
A journal article with 2 authors
Calabrese, Edward J. and Linda A. Baldwin (2003) ‘Toxicology rethinks its central belief’, Nature 421(6924): 691–692.
A journal article with 3 authors
Neal, C.R., S.E. Haggerty, and V. Sautter (2001) ‘“Majorite” and “silicate perovskite” mineral compositions in xenoliths from Malaita’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 292(5519): 1015.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Brownell, R.L., Jr, B.E. Curry, W.V. Bonn, S.H. Ridgway, P. Daszak, A.A. Cunningham, and A.D. Hyatt (2000) ‘Conservation conundrum’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 288(5475): 2319b–20b.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu, Jian, Xinzhou Dong, Xingying Chen, Xiangqian Tong, Xiaoqing Zhang, and Shiming Xu (2016) Fault Location and Service Restoration for Electrical Distribution Systems, Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Trillas, Enric, Piero P. Bonissone, Luis Magdalena, and Janusz Kacprzyk, eds. (2012) Combining Experimentation and Theory: A Hommage to Abe Mamdani, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fichtner, Horst, Bernd Heber, Klaudia Herbst, Andreas Kopp, and Klaus Scherer (2013) ‘Solar Activity, the Heliosphere, Cosmic Rays and Their Impact on the Earth’s Atmosphere’, in Franz-Josef Lübken, ed., Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System (CAWSES): Highlights from a Priority Program, 55–78, Springer Atmospheric Sciences, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of International Relations and Development.

Blog post
Hale, Tom (2016) ‘Nobel Prizes Kick Off With Announcement Of Medicine Award’, IFLScience available at (accessed 30 October, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991). ‘Air Traffic Control: FAA’s Advanced Automation System Contract’, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jansson, Anna Stratigraphy, Landscape Evolution, and Past Environments at the Billy Big Spring Site, Montana. Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, Kelly ‘As a Hotel Goes Up, So Does The Unease of the Neighbors’. New York Times, April 29, 147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chapman 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Chapman 2004; Calabrese and Baldwin 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Calabrese and Baldwin 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Brownell et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of International Relations and Development
AbbreviationJ. Int. Relat. Dev.
ISSN (print)1408-6980
ISSN (online)1581-1980
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles