How to format your references using the Journal of International Relations and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of International Relations and Development (JIRD). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hawks, J. (2001) ‘The Y chromosome and the replacement hypothesis’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 293(5530): 567.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hughes, Adam L. and Daniel E. Gottschling (2012) ‘An early age increase in vacuolar pH limits mitochondrial function and lifespan in yeast’, Nature 492(7428): 261–265.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lassus, Patrice, Ximena Opitz-Araya, and Yuri Lazebnik (2002) ‘Requirement for caspase-2 in stress-induced apoptosis before mitochondrial permeabilization’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 297(5585): 1352–1354.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Davidson, Alan J. et al. (2003) ‘cdx4 mutants fail to specify blood progenitors and can be rescued by multiple hox genes’, Nature 425(6955): 300–306.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dijksterhuis, Garmt B. (2008) Multivariate Data Analysis in Sensory and Consumer Science, Trumbull, Connecticut, USA: Food & Nutrition Press, Inc.
An edited book
Garcia, Emilia (2015) Regulated Open Multi-Agent Systems (ROMAS): A Multi-Agent Approach for Designing Normative Open Systems, Adriana Giret and Vicente Botti, eds., Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhou, Chunfang, Xiutao Feng, and Dongdai Lin (2011) ‘The Initialization Stage Analysis of ZUC v1.5’, in Dongdai Lin, Gene Tsudik, and Xiaoyun Wang, eds., Cryptology and Network Security: 10th International Conference, CANS 2011, Sanya, China, December 10-12, 2011. Proceedings, 40–53, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of International Relations and Development.

Blog post
Taub, Ben (2016) ‘Being Overweight Ages Your Brain By Ten Years’, IFLScience available at (accessed 30 October, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999). ‘Federal Research: Evaluation of Small Business Innovation Research Can Be Strengthened’, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boos, April Lynn The post-abortion experience: A content analysis. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, Mary ‘British Invasion, Only This Time It’s in Retail’. New York Times, May 20, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hawks 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Hawks 2001; Hughes and Gottschling 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hughes and Gottschling 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Davidson et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of International Relations and Development
AbbreviationJ. Int. Relat. Dev.
ISSN (print)1408-6980
ISSN (online)1581-1980
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

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