How to format your references using the Journal of Thermal Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Thermal Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Downer, M.C., 2002. Optics. A new low for nonlinear optics. Science 298, 373–375.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim, N., Grey, C.P., 2002. Probing oxygen motion in disordered anionic conductors with 17O and 51V MAS NMR spectroscopy. Science 297, 1317–1320.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cabanes, C., Cazenave, A., Le Provost, C., 2001. Sea level rise during past 40 years determined from satellite and in situ observations. Science 294, 840–842.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D’Costa, V.M., McGrann, K.M., Hughes, D.W., Wright, G.D., 2006. Sampling the antibiotic resistome. Science 311, 374–377.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vaccari, D.A., Strom, P.F., Alleman, J.E., 2005. Environmental Biology for Engineers and Scientists. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Brinkworth, J.F., Pechenkina, K. (Eds.), 2013. Primates, Pathogens, and Evolution, Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Hirano, T., van der Kolk, N., Bilandzic, A., 2010. Hydrodynamics and Flow, in: Sarkar, S., Satz, H., Sinha, B. (Eds.), The Physics of the Quark-Gluon Plasma: Introductory Lectures, Lecture Notes in Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 139–178.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Thermal Biology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2017. Scientists Can Now Do Quantum Hacking [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1975. Problems in Administering Programs To Improve Law Enforcement Education (No. GGD-75-67). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Christian, T.M., 2012. Under the Navajo stars: The intersection of mythic narratives, archaeology, and star ceilings (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kovaleski, S.F., Flegenheimer, M., 2014. Christie Allies Joked of Disrupting Traffic at a Rabbi’s House. New York Times A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Downer, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Downer, 2002; Kim and Grey, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kim and Grey, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (D’Costa et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Thermal Biology
AbbreviationJ. Therm. Biol.
ISSN (print)0306-4565
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Developmental Biology

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