How to format your references using the Journal of Thermal Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Thermal Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goroff, D.L., 2015. Information access. Balancing privacy versus accuracy in research protocols. Science 347, 479–480.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bennett, C.H., DiVincenzo, D.P., 2000. Quantum information and computation. Nature 404, 247–255.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamamoto, Y., Stock, D.W., Jeffery, W.R., 2004. Hedgehog signalling controls eye degeneration in blind cavefish. Nature 431, 844–847.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Losos, J.B., Leal, M., Glor, R.E., De Queiroz, K., Hertz, P.E., Rodríguez Schettino, L., Lara, A.C., Jackman, T.R., Larson, A., 2003. Niche lability in the evolution of a Caribbean lizard community. Nature 424, 542–545.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Likhtenshtein, G., 2012. Solar Energy Conversion. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Jarvis, S.A., Wright, S.A., Hammond, S.D. (Eds.), 2015. High Performance Computing Systems. Performance Modeling, Benchmarking, and Simulation: 5th International Workshop, PMBS 2014, New Orleans, LA, USA, November 16, 2014. Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Vassev, E., Hinchey, M., 2014. Verification and Validation of Autonomy Requirements, in: Hinchey, M. (Ed.), Autonomy Requirements Engineering for Space Missions, NASA Monographs in Systems and Software Engineering. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 173–184.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Thermal Biology.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Food Puzzles Makes Cats Healthier, Calmer, And Less Aggressive [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Federal Research: Superconducting Super Collider Cost and Schedule (No. T-RCED-93-47). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson, E.M., 2017. Lessons Learned from the Gender Wage Gap in the Federal Workforce: Structural Changes and Temporal Flexibility are Only the First Step to Equality (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2014. Judge Rejects Overhaul of Illinois’s Beleaguered State Pension System. New York Times A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goroff, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bennett and DiVincenzo, 2000; Goroff, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bennett and DiVincenzo, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Losos et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Thermal Biology
AbbreviationJ. Therm. Biol.
ISSN (print)0306-4565
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Developmental Biology

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