How to format your references using the Journal of Thermal Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Thermal Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kerr, R.A., 2000. PALEONTOLOGY: Biggest Extinction Hit Land and Sea. Science 289, 1666b–7b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chow, B.Y., Boyden, E.S., 2011. Physiology. Synthetic physiology. Science 332, 1508–1509.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hernlund, J.W., Thomas, C., Tackley, P.J., 2005. A doubling of the post-perovskite phase boundary and structure of the Earth’s lowermost mantle. Nature 434, 882–886.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Meehl, G.A., Arblaster, J.M., Matthes, K., Sassi, F., van Loon, H., 2009. Amplifying the Pacific climate system response to a small 11-year solar cycle forcing. Science 325, 1114–1118.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fleming, P., Lee, R., 2016. Orthodontic Functional Appliances. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Tatnall, A. (Ed.), 2012. Reflections on the History of Computing: Preserving Memories and Sharing Stories, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Czinglar, C., Katicic, A., Kčhler, K., Schaner-Wolles, C., 2006. Strategies in the L1-acquisition of predication: The copula construction in German and Croatian, in: Gagarina, N., Gulzow, I. (Eds.), The Acquisition of Verbs and Their Grammar: The Effect of Particular Languages, Studies in Theoretical Psycholinguistics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 71–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Thermal Biology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2017. VISTA Uncovers New Secrets In The Orion Nebula [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Airport Improvement Program: Program Funding by State Relative to Enplanements for Selected Years (No. RCED-94-7FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ware, S.C., 2014. Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk in older women: A modifiable lifestyle risk factor (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S., 2000. It Gets Worse for Raymond. New York Times D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kerr, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Chow and Boyden, 2011; Kerr, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chow and Boyden, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Meehl et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Thermal Biology
AbbreviationJ. Therm. Biol.
ISSN (print)0306-4565
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Developmental Biology

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