How to format your references using the Biodiversity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biodiversity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Melton, Lisa. 2005. “Imaging: The Big Picture.” Nature 437 (7059): 775–779.
A journal article with 2 authors
Abramson, Jeff, and Armand S. Vartanian. 2013. “Biochemistry. Watch Water Flow.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 340 (6138): 1294–1295.
A journal article with 3 authors
Acar, Murat, Attila Becskei, and Alexander van Oudenaarden. 2005. “Enhancement of Cellular Memory by Reducing Stochastic Transitions.” Nature 435 (7039): 228–232.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kitamura, N., M. Kitahara, M. Shoji, Y. Miyoshi, H. Hasegawa, S. Nakamura, Y. Katoh, et al. 2018. “Direct Measurements of Two-Way Wave-Particle Energy Transfer in a Collisionless Space Plasma.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 361 (6406): 1000–1003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Malpass, Dennis B., and Elliot I. Band. 2012. Introduction to Industrial Polypropylene. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Guelfi, Maria Renza, Marco Masoni, Antonio Conti, and Gian Franco Gensini, eds. 2011. E-Learning in Sanità: Progettare, Produrre Ed Erogare Corsi Di Formazione Online per l’area Sanitaria. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lamanna, D. Davide, Giorgia Lodi, and Roberto Baldoni. 2012. “How Not to Be Seen in the Cloud: A Progressive Privacy Solution for Desktop-as-a-Service.” In On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems: OTM 2012: Confederated International Conferences: CoopIS, DOA-SVI, and ODBASE 2012, Rome, Italy, September 10-14, 2012. Proceedings, Part II, edited by Robert Meersman, Hervé Panetto, Tharam Dillon, Stefanie Rinderle-Ma, Peter Dadam, Xiaofang Zhou, Siani Pearson, Alois Ferscha, Sonia Bergamaschi, and Isabel F. Cruz, 492–510. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biodiversity.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2016. “Genes Can Have Up To 80% Influence On Students’ Academic Performance.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1981. Observations on Selected Aspects of School Lunch Program Administration. 115342. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tang, Yun. 2009. “Structure Tailored Properties and Functionalities of Zero-Dimensional Nanostructures.” Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, Mary J. O. 2011. “A Watcher in the Night.” New York Times, September 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Melton 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Melton 2005; Abramson and Vartanian 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Abramson and Vartanian 2013)
  • Three authors: (Acar, Becskei, and van Oudenaarden 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kitamura et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiodiversity
AbbreviationBiodiversity (Nepean)
ISSN (print)1488-8386
ISSN (online)2160-0651
Global and Planetary Change
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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