How to format your references using the Biodiversity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biodiversity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fredrickson, James K. 2015. “ECOLOGY. Ecological Communities by Design.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 348 (6242): 1425–1427.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kang, Ji-Hun, and Q-Han Park. 2013. “Fractional Tunnelling Resonance in Plasmonic Media.” Scientific Reports 3: 2423.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meier, P., A. Finch, and G. Evan. 2000. “Apoptosis in Development.” Nature 407 (6805): 796–801.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kim, Su Jin, Hee-Dong Kim, Kyeong Heon Kim, Hee Woong Shin, Il Ki Han, and Tae Geun Kim. 2014. “Fabrication of Wide-Bandgap Transparent Electrodes by Using Conductive Filaments: Performance Breakthrough in Vertical-Type GaN LED.” Scientific Reports 4 (July): 5827.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prud’homme, Roger. 2012. Flows and Chemical Reactions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Maheshwari, Dinesh K., ed. 2011. Plant Growth and Health Promoting Bacteria. Vol. 18. Microbiology Monographs. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Peter-Koop, Andrea, and Sebastian Kollhoff. 2015. “Transition to School: Prior to School Mathematical Skills and Knowledge of Low-Achieving Children at the End of Grade 1.” In Mathematics and Transition to School: International Perspectives, edited by Bob Perry, Amy MacDonald, and Ann Gervasoni, 65–83. Early Mathematics Learning and Development. Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biodiversity.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2015. “Travel Through The Solar System At The Speed Of Light.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Federal Research: DOD’s Small Business Innovation Research Program. RCED-97-122. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams, Karen. 2016. “From Cribs to Crayons: A Study on the Use of Universal Curriculum and Assessment of Preschool Students and Teachers in the Classroom.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff, John, and Matthew Rosenberg. 2017. “China’s Intelligent Weaponry Gets Smarter.” New York Times, February 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fredrickson 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Fredrickson 2015; Kang and Park 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kang and Park 2013)
  • Three authors: (Meier, Finch, and Evan 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kim et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiodiversity
AbbreviationBiodiversity (Nepean)
ISSN (print)1488-8386
ISSN (online)2160-0651
Global and Planetary Change
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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