How to format your references using the Biodiversity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biodiversity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rothwell, N. J. 2000. “Show Them How It’s Really Done.” Nature 405 (6787): 621.
A journal article with 2 authors
Park, Eunyong, and Tom A. Rapoport. 2011. “Preserving the Membrane Barrier for Small Molecules during Bacterial Protein Translocation.” Nature 473 (7346): 239–242.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pertsinidis, Alexandros, Yunxiang Zhang, and Steven Chu. 2010. “Subnanometre Single-Molecule Localization, Registration and Distance Measurements.” Nature 466 (7306): 647–651.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Boratyński, Zbyszek, Philipp Lehmann, Tapio Mappes, Timothy A. Mousseau, and Anders Pape Møller. 2014. “Increased Radiation from Chernobyl Decreases the Expression of Red Colouration in Natural Populations of Bank Voles (Myodes Glareolus).” Scientific Reports 4 (November): 7141.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krishnan, Venkatarama. 2006. Probability and Random Processes. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Galimberti, Daniela, and Elio Scarpini, eds. 2014. Neurodegenerative Diseases: Clinical Aspects, Molecular Genetics and Biomarkers. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo. 2006. “Genetic Approaches for Malaria Control.” In Bridging Laboratory and Field Research for Genetic Control of Disease Vectors, edited by C. Louis, 53–65. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biodiversity.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. “New Tool Coming In Hunt For Alien Life.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. Compensatory Education: Chapter 1 Services Provided to Private Sectarian School Students. HRD-87-128BR. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alimo, Craig John. 2010. “From Dialogue to Action: The Development of White Racial Allies.” Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, George Gene. 2011. “Restarting Comics’ Clock Is Issue No. 1.” New York Times, June 13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rothwell 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Rothwell 2000; Park and Rapoport 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Park and Rapoport 2011)
  • Three authors: (Pertsinidis, Zhang, and Chu 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Boratyński et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiodiversity
AbbreviationBiodiversity (Nepean)
ISSN (print)1488-8386
ISSN (online)2160-0651
Global and Planetary Change
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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