How to format your references using the Biodiversity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biodiversity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Klemperer, W. 2001. “Astronomy. The Complex Story of H2.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 293 (5531): 815–816.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wheeler, Tim, and Joachim von Braun. 2013. “Climate Change Impacts on Global Food Security.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 341 (6145): 508–513.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun, Lipeng, Kihyung Song, and William L. Hase. 2002. “A SN2 Reaction That Avoids Its Deep Potential Energy Minimum.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5569): 875–878.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lee, H. C., S. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, H. C. Shin, and J. W. Yoon. 2000. “Remission in Models of Type 1 Diabetes by Gene Therapy Using a Single-Chain Insulin Analogue.” Nature 408 (6811): 483–488.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Powsner, Rachel A., Matthew R. Palmer, and Edward R. Powsner. 2013. Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Physics and Instrumentation. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Sharvit, Keren, and Eran Halperin, eds. 2016. A Social Psychology Perspective on The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Celebrating the Legacy of Daniel Bar-Tal, Vol II. 1st ed. 2016. Peace Psychology Book Series. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Dym, Harry, Mauricio C. de Oliveira, and Mihai Putinar. 2012. “Bill’s Early Work.” In Mathematical Methods in Systems, Optimization, and Control: Festschrift in Honor of J. William Helton, edited by Harry Dym, Mauricio C. de Oliveira, and Mihai Putinar, 23–28. Basel: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biodiversity.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2013. “For Ocean Animals, ‘Death By Plastic’ Could Be Occurring More Frequently.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1969. Administration of Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. 092686. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chen, Melissa Soriano. 2014. “Emergency Shelter for Abused and Neglected Elders A Grant Proposal Project.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, James. 2017. “Deal Set to Provide Care For Research Chimps.” New York Times, May 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Klemperer 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Klemperer 2001; Wheeler and von Braun 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wheeler and von Braun 2013)
  • Three authors: (Sun, Song, and Hase 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lee et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiodiversity
AbbreviationBiodiversity (Nepean)
ISSN (print)1488-8386
ISSN (online)2160-0651
Global and Planetary Change
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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