How to format your references using the Biodiversity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biodiversity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ebert, Dieter. 2011. “Genomics. A Genome for the Environment.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 331 (6017): 539–540.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dong, F., and R. E. Miller. 2002. “Vibrational Transition Moment Angles in Isolated Biomolecules: A Structural Tool.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298 (5596): 1227–1230.
A journal article with 3 authors
Langmore, Naomi E., Sarah Hunt, and Rebecca M. Kilner. 2003. “Escalation of a Coevolutionary Arms Race through Host Rejection of Brood Parasitic Young.” Nature 422 (6928): 157–160.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Pauly, Daniel, Jackie Alder, Elena Bennett, Villy Christensen, Peter Tyedmers, and Reg Watson. 2003. “The Future for Fisheries.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 302 (5649): 1359–1361.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonem, Joseph M. 2011. Problem Solving for Process Operators and Specialists. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gherardelli, F., ed. 2011. Complex Analysis. Vol. 62. C.I.M.E. Summer Schools. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pasin, Marcelo, Pierre Kuonen, Marco Danelutto, and Marco Aldinucci. 2007. “Skeleton Parallel Programming and Parallel Objects.” In Integrated Research in GRID Computing: CoreGRID Integration Workshop 2005 (Selected Papers) November 28–30, Pisa, Italy, edited by Sergei Gorlatch and Marco Danelutto, 59–71. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biodiversity.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Is That A Human Or Machine Driving? Mistaken Identity Can Lead To Tragedy.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Information Technology: HUD’s Expenditure Plan Satisfies Statutory Conditions, and Implementation of Management Controls Is Under Way. GAO-11-762. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parisi, Joe. 2012. “Correlation of Conditional Admittance and Student Achievement in an Undergraduate Higher Education Setting.” Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff, John. 2016. “Exploring the Sea, No Sailors Needed.” New York Times, September 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ebert 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Ebert 2011; Dong and Miller 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dong and Miller 2002)
  • Three authors: (Langmore, Hunt, and Kilner 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Pauly et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiodiversity
AbbreviationBiodiversity (Nepean)
ISSN (print)1488-8386
ISSN (online)2160-0651
Global and Planetary Change
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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