# How to format your references using the Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

## Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

## Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Mellars P. Neanderthals and the modern human colonization of Europe. Nature. 2004;432:461–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Over H, Seitsonen AP. Surface chemistry. Oxidation of metal surfaces. Science. 2002;297:2003–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Rompolas P, Mesa KR, Greco V. Spatial organization within a niche as a determinant of stem-cell fate. Nature. 2013;502:513–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Zhang H, Yang B, Pomerantz RJ, Zhang C, Arunachalam SC, Gao L. The cytidine deaminase CEM15 induces hypermutation in newly synthesized HIV-1 DNA. Nature. 2003;424:94–8.

## Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Nedoma J, Stehlík J, Hlaváček I, Daněk J, Dostálová T, Přečková P. Mathematical and Computational Methods in Biomechanics of Human Skeletal Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Berardi S, Damiani F, de’Liguoro U, editors. Types for Proofs and Programs: International Conference, TYPES 2008 Torino, Italy, March 26-29, 2008 Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kaneko M, Izumi H, Kitahara K, Abe T, Fukazawa K, Sekiguchi M, et al. A Simple Method of the ${\rm\kern-.15em T\kern-.1667em\lower.7ex\hbox{E}\kern-.125emX}$ Surface Drawing Suitable for Teaching Materials with the Aid of CAS. In: Bubak M, Albada GD van, Dongarra J, Sloot PMA, editors. Computational Science – ICCS 2008: 8th International Conference, Kraków, Poland, June 23-25, 2008, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 35–45.

## Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. World’s First Robot-Run Hotel Due To Open In Japan This July. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

## Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. EPA: New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines Air Pollution Control--Voluntary Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Jun. Report No.: OGC-97-45.

## Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Monterosa VM. Digital Citizenship District-Wide: Examining the Organizational Evolution of an Initiative [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

## News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. Justices Hear Case on Right To Choose Defense Counsel. New York Times. 2006 Apr 19;A17.

## In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].