How to format your references using the Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Fischer KM. Waning buoyancy in the crustal roots of old mountains. Nature. 2002;417:933–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Tedford RH, Harington CR. An Arctic mammal fauna from the Early Pliocene of North America. Nature. 2003;425:388–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Gilg O, Hanski I, Sittler B. Cyclic dynamics in a simple vertebrate predator-prey community. Science. 2003;302:866–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kang WN, Kim HJ, Choi EM, Jung CU, Lee SI. MgB2 superconducting thin films with a transition temperature of 39 kelvin. Science. 2001;292:1521–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Cherian A. Energy and Global Climate Change. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Moore AJ, Newell DW, editors. Neurosurgery: Principles and Practice. London: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Marcus A, Ma X. Cuteness Design in the UX: An Initial Analysis. In: Marcus A, editor. Design, User Experience, and Usability: Novel User Experiences: 5th International Conference, DUXU 2016, Held as Part of HCI International 2016, Toronto, Canada, July 17–22, 2016, Proceedings, Part II. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 46–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound.

Blog post
1. Hale T. The “Gateway To The Underworld” In Siberia Was Created By Climate Change [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Student Athletes: Most Schools Meet Proposed Academic Performance Reporting Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 Sep. Report No.: HRD-89-157BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Day KC. CPA Perceptions of Human Skills for Professional Competency Development Needs [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kenigsberg B. Beach Rats. New York Times. 2017 Aug 24;C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Therapeutic Ultrasound
AbbreviationJ. Ther. Ultrasound
ISSN (online)2050-5736

Other styles