How to format your references using the Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wolinetz CD. Implementing the new U.S. dual-use policy. Science. 2012;336:1525–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Shlomai A, Rice CM. Virology. Getting rid of a persistent troublemaker to cure hepatitis. Science. 2014;343:1212–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ding YS, Chan CT, Wang RP. Optical waves in a gradient negative-index lens of a half-infinite length. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2954.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Mao WL, Mao H-K, Sturhahn W, Zhao J, Prakapenka VB, Meng Y, et al. Iron-rich post-perovskite and the origin of ultralow-velocity zones. Science. 2006;312:564–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Ciobanu CV, Wang C-Z, Ho K-M. Atomic Structure Prediction of Nanostructures, Clusters and Surfaces. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
1. Scaioni M, editor. Modern Technologies for Landslide Monitoring and Prediction. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ren F, Zhai J. Essential Channels for the Communication and Popularization of Science and Technology. In: Zhai J, editor. Communication and Popularization of Science and Technology in China. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 85–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. Ranked: The 42 Laziest Dog Breeds In America. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Transportation Worker Identification Credential: Mailing Credentials to Applicants’ Residences Would Not Be Consistent with DHS Policy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 Apr. Report No.: GAO-11-542R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Boyle CN. Support program for transition age youth: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Traub J. Types of Catastrophe. New York Times. 2016 Sep 4;BR12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Therapeutic Ultrasound
AbbreviationJ. Ther. Ultrasound
ISSN (online)2050-5736

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