How to format your references using the Journal of the World Federation of Orthodontists citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the World Federation of Orthodontists. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wang K. Measurement biases explain discrepancies between the observed and simulated decadal variability of surface incident solar radiation. Sci Rep 2014;4:6144.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sheehan PM, Harris MT. Microbialite resurgence after the Late Ordovician extinction. Nature 2004;430:75–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tang R-Y, Li G, Yu J-Q. Conformation-induced remote meta-C-H activation of amines. Nature 2014;507:215–20.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lacoste V, Mauclère P, Dubreuil G, Lewis J, Georges-Courbot MC, Gessain A. KSHV-like herpesviruses in chimps and gorillas. Nature 2000;407:151–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. Recognizing Catastrophic Incident Warning Signs in the Process Industries. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Saligrama V, editor. Networked Sensing Information and Control. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Redouté J-M, Steyaert M. EMI Resisting Analog Input Circuits. In: Steyaert M, editor. EMC of Analog Integrated Circuits, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010, p. 141–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the World Federation of Orthodontists.

Blog post
Andrew E. Lung Capacity Of A Smoker Vs Non-Smoker. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Consolidated Education Planning: State Education Agencies’ Implementation of Consolidated Planning at the Local Level. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Frantz DE. The effects of Aroclor 1254 on the reproductive function of male round stingrays (Urobatis halleri). Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E. Why We Play Semipro. New York Times 1997:1310.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the World Federation of Orthodontists
AbbreviationJ. World Fed. Orthod.
ISSN (print)2212-4438

Other styles