How to format your references using the Journal of the World Federation of Orthodontists citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the World Federation of Orthodontists. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Boosting biotech in Finland. Nature 2004;431:1020–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scanlon JD, Lee MS. The Pleistocene serpent Wonambi and the early evolution of snakes. Nature 2000;403:416–20.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kogan A, Amasha S, Kastner MA. Photon-induced Kondo satellites in a single-electron transistor. Science 2004;304:1293–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Close LM, Lenzen R, Guirado JC, Nielsen EL, Mamajek EE, Brandner W, et al. A dynamical calibration of the mass-luminosity relation at very low stellar masses and young ages. Nature 2005;433:286–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Technical Planning for on-site Emergencies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1995.
An edited book
Montanari F. Risk Regulation in Non-Animal Food Imports: The European Union Approach. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Sarkar IN. Mining the Bibliome. In: Payne PRO, Embi PJ, editors. Translational Informatics: Realizing the Promise of Knowledge-Driven Healthcare, London: Springer; 2015, p. 75–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the World Federation of Orthodontists.

Blog post
Davis J. Tens Of Thousands Of Fish Die In Yellowstone River, Prompting Authorities To Close It Down. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Rural Development: Steps Towards Realizing the Potential of Telecommunications Technologies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clovis DJ. The thayer valve and its effect on a generation and beyond. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Turkewitz J, Fernandez M, Blinder A. Deadly Storm Transforms Houston Streets Into Raging Rivers. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the World Federation of Orthodontists
AbbreviationJ. World Fed. Orthod.
ISSN (print)2212-4438

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