How to format your references using the BMC Public Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Public Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Del Genio AD. Atmospheric science. The dust settles on water vapor feedback. Science. 2002;296:665–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Galonić DP, Gin DY. Chemical glycosylation in the synthesis of glycoconjugate antitumour vaccines. Nature. 2007;446:1000–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Levin EJ, Quick M, Zhou M. Crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of the kidney urea transporter. Nature. 2009;462:757–61.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ainla A, Gözen I, Hakonen B, Jesorka A. Lab on a Biomembrane: rapid prototyping and manipulation of 2D fluidic lipid bilayers circuits. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2743.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Sahalos JN. Orthogonal Methods for Array Synthesis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
1. O’Connor RV, Umay Akkaya M, Kemaneci K, Yilmaz M, Poth A, Messnarz R, editors. Systems, Software and Services Process Improvement: 22nd European Conference, EuroSPI 2015, Ankara, Turkey, September 30 -- October 2, 2015. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Souza R, Cardozo E. A Resource-Oriented Architecture for the Internet of Things (IoT). In: Mahmood Z, editor. Connectivity Frameworks for Smart Devices: The Internet of Things from a Distributed Computing Perspective. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 99–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Public Health.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. How The Largest Association Of Psychologists In The US Colluded In Torture. IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/how-largest-association-psychologists-us-colluded-ttorture/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Biotechnology: Processing Delays Continue for Growing Backlog of Patent Applications. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Cooper T. Biting Animals. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Billard M. From the Mosh Pit To a Life in Balance. New York Times. 2012;:E11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Public Health
AbbreviationBMC Public Health
ISSN (online)1471-2458
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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