How to format your references using the BMC Public Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Public Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Matzke NJ. The evolution of antievolution policies after Kitzmiller versus Dover. Science. 2016;351:28–30.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lin S-C, van Keken PE. Multiple volcanic episodes of flood basalts caused by thermochemical mantle plumes. Nature. 2005;436:250–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Su W, Bagshaw CR, Burley GA. Addressable and unidirectional energy transfer along a DNA three-way junction programmed by pyrrole-imidazole polyamides. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1883.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Lecellier C-H, Dunoyer P, Arar K, Lehmann-Che J, Eyquem S, Himber C, et al. A cellular microRNA mediates antiviral defense in human cells. Science. 2005;308:557–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Zheng Y, Xu X, Xu Z, Wang J, Cai H. Metallic Biomaterials. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2017.
An edited book
1. Ellis R, Allen T, Petridis M, editors. Applications and Innovations in Intelligent Systems XV: Proceedings of AI-2007, the Twenty-seventh SGAI International Conference on Innovative Techniques and Applications of Artificial Intelligence. London: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Jhumka A, Kulkarni S. On the Design of Mobility-Tolerant TDMA-Based Media Access Control (MAC) Protocol for Mobile Sensor Networks. In: Janowski T, Mohanty H, editors. Distributed Computing and Internet Technology: 4th International Conference, ICDCIT 2007, Bangalore, India, December 17-20. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 42–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Public Health.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Man Constructs 3D Printed Concrete Castle. IFLScience. 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/man-constructs-3d-printed-concrete-castle/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Status of FAA’s Actions to Oversee the Safety of Composite Airplanes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Mantilla AN. The differences in the educational experiences and caregiver involvement in education between youth in foster care and those in care of their biological parents. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Koblin J. A Show That Scares With Politics, Not Just Killer Clowns. New York Times. 2017;:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Public Health
AbbreviationBMC Public Health
ISSN (online)1471-2458
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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