How to format your references using the EPMA Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EPMA Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bordignon C. Stem-cell therapies for blood diseases. Nature. 2006;441:1100–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Law KL, Thompson RC. Oceans. Microplastics in the seas. Science. 2014;345:144–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. McGaha TL, Sorrentino B, Ravetch JV. Restoration of tolerance in lupus by targeted inhibitory receptor expression. Science. 2005;307:590–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Cheah MT, Wachter A, Sudarsan N, Breaker RR. Control of alternative RNA splicing and gene expression by eukaryotic riboswitches. Nature. 2007;447:497–500.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bamfield P. Research and Development in the Chemical and Pharmaceutical Industry. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2006.
An edited book
1. Agnoletti M, editor. Italian Historical Rural Landscapes: Cultural Values for the Environment and Rural Development. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Johansson T, Donner P. Strict Ocean Governance and Commercial Implications of Arctic Navigation. In: Donner P, editor. The Shipping Industry, Ocean Governance and Environmental Law in the Paradigm Shift: In Search of a Pragmatic Balance for the Arctic. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 67–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EPMA Journal.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. Feed A Virus But Starve Bacteria? When You’re Sick, It May Really Matter [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/feed-a-virus-but-starve-bacteria-when-youre-sick-it-may-really-matter/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. [Comments on NASA Agreement With Firm for Commercial Launch Services]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986 Jul. Report No.: B-223684.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Nagarajah BA. The influence of professional training and personal factors on technostress: A correlational study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Baker P. Investigation Takes On Gravity In Dangerous Phase for Trump. New York Times. 2017 Oct 30;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEPMA Journal
AbbreviationEPMA J.
ISSN (print)1878-5077
ISSN (online)1878-5085
ScopeBiochemistry, medical
Health Policy
Drug Discovery

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