How to format your references using the EPMA Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EPMA Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Engheta N. Circuits with light at nanoscales: optical nanocircuits inspired by metamaterials. Science. 2007;317:1698–702.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Esler WP, Wolfe MS. A portrait of Alzheimer secretases--new features and familiar faces. Science. 2001;293:1449–54.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Singh SK, Yamashita A, Gouaux E. Antidepressant binding site in a bacterial homologue of neurotransmitter transporters. Nature. 2007;448:952–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Boothroyd CE, Dreesen O, Leonova T, Ly KI, Figueiredo LM, Cross GAM, et al. A yeast-endonuclease-generated DNA break induces antigenic switching in Trypanosoma brucei. Nature. 2009;459:278–81.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Brown T, Andrews GJ, Cummins S, Greenhough B, Lewis D, Power A. Health Geographies. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
1. Obi A, editor. Institutional constraints to small farmer development in Southern Africa. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Chowdary CR, Sreenivasa Kumar P. Sentence Ordering for Coherent Multi-document Summary Generation. In: Gray A, Jeffery K, Shao J, editors. Sharing Data, Information and Knowledge: 25th British National Conference on Databases, BNCOD 25, Cardiff, UK, July 7-10, 2008 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 40–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EPMA Journal.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Permian Era Had Two Mass Extinctions [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Digital Television Transition: Information on the Implementation of the Converter Box Subsidy Program and Consumer Participation in the Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008 Sep. Report No.: GAO-08-1181T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Coles J. The Balancing of Parental Support and Pressure in Fostering Collegiate Athletes [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wines M. Justices Face Wisconsin Case That Could Redraw Partisan Political Maps. New York Times. 2017 Oct 1;A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEPMA Journal
AbbreviationEPMA J.
ISSN (print)1878-5077
ISSN (online)1878-5085
ScopeBiochemistry, medical
Health Policy
Drug Discovery

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