How to format your references using the EPMA Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EPMA Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Rohde JR. Microbiology. Listeria unwinds host DNA. Science. 2011;331:1271–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Li A, Yong X. Entanglement guarantees emergence of cooperation in quantum prisoner’s dilemma games on networks. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6286.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Innocenti P, Morrow EH, Dowling DK. Experimental evidence supports a sex-specific selective sieve in mitochondrial genome evolution. Science. 2011;332:845–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Rahman MA, Masuda A, Ohe K, Ito M, Hutchinson DO, Mayeda A, et al. HnRNP L and hnRNP LL antagonistically modulate PTB-mediated splicing suppression of CHRNA1 pre-mRNA. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2931.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. D’Andrea A, Sjogren J. Veterinary Technician’s Large Animal Daily Reference Guide. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
1. Abdulrazak B, Giroux S, Bouchard B, Pigot H, Mokhtari M, editors. Toward Useful Services for Elderly and People with Disabilities: 9th International Conference on Smart Homes and Health Telematics, ICOST 2011, Montreal, Canada, June 20-22, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Aspnes DE. Plasmonics and Effective-Medium Theory. In: Losurdo M, Hingerl K, editors. Ellipsometry at the Nanoscale. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 203–24.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EPMA Journal.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Iconic Arecibo Observatory Faces Closure Due To Lack Of Funding [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/iconic-arecibo-observatory-faces-closure-due-to-lack-of-funding/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Tax Systems Modernization: Update on Critical Issues Facing IRS. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 May. Report No.: T-IMTEC-92-18.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gilman DG. Comparative analysis of corporate culture in a multinational organization [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. Amid Celebrations And the Cheers, Cashman Reflects. New York Times. 2009 Nov 7;D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEPMA Journal
AbbreviationEPMA J.
ISSN (print)1878-5077
ISSN (online)1878-5085
ScopeBiochemistry, medical
Health Policy
Drug Discovery

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