How to format your references using the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haag A. Alternatives in Colorado. Nature. 2007 Mar 29;446(7135):578–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
McGuire AL, Gibbs RA. Genetics. No longer de-identified. Science. 2006 Apr 21;312(5772):370–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bailis R, Ezzati M, Kammen DM. Mortality and greenhouse gas impacts of biomass and petroleum energy futures in Africa. Science. 2005 Apr 1;308(5718):98–103.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Martin PR, Lee BB, White AJ, Solomon SG, Rüttiger L. Chromatic sensitivity of ganglion cells in the peripheral primate retina. Nature. 2001 Apr 19;410(6831):933–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grimble MJ. Robust Industrial Control Systems. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Ba S. “Internet Plus” Pathways to the Transformation of China’s Property Sector. Yang X, editor. Singapore: Springer; 2016. XIII, 168 p. 113 illus., 93 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Chang J-H. Recent Developments in Poly(butylene terephthalate) Nanocomposites. In: Pandey JK, Reddy KR, Mohanty AK, Misra M, editors. Handbook of Polymernanocomposites Processing, Performance and Application: Volume A: Layered Silicates. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 293–317.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine.

Blog post
Andrews R. Rare Antibody Found To Neutralize 98% Of All HIV Strains [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Health Information Technology: HHS is Continuing Efforts to Define Its National Strategy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Sep. Report No.: GAO-06-1071T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yaceczko SD. A Telehealth Nutrition Manual for an Online Intensive Behavioral Weight Management Program [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robbins L. Yemeni-Americans Sue Over Passport Woes. New York Times. 2015 May 28;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Royal Society of Medicine
AbbreviationJ. R. Soc. Med.
ISSN (print)0141-0768
ISSN (online)1758-1095
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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