How to format your references using the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Noble D. Modeling the heart--from genes to cells to the whole organ. Science. 2002 Mar 1;295(5560):1678–82.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clusella-Trullas S, Chown SL. Comment on “Erosion of lizard diversity by climate change and altered thermal niches.” Science. 2011 Apr 29;332(6029):537; author reply 537.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cosgaya JM, Chan JR, Shooter EM. The neurotrophin receptor p75NTR as a positive modulator of myelination. Science. 2002 Nov 8;298(5596):1245–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tang W, Shan B, Zhang H, Zhang W, Zhao Y, Ding Y, et al. Heavy metal contamination in the surface sediments of representative limnetic ecosystems in eastern China. Sci Rep. 2014 Nov 21;4:7152.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Young GC. Municipal Solid Waste to Energy Conversion Processes. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Magnuson JA, Fu PC Jr, editors. Public Health Informatics and Information Systems. 2nd ed. 2014. London: Springer; 2014. XVIII, 666 p. 114 illus., 35 illus. in color. (Health Informatics).
A chapter in an edited book
Bornemann T, Holtkamp W, Wintermeyer W. Nascent Peptide-Induced Signaling from the Exit Tunnel to the Outside of the Ribosome. In: Ito K, editor. Regulatory Nascent Polypeptides. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2014. p. 87–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. John Nash: A Beautiful Mind And Its Exquisite Mathematics [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FCC: Policies and Rules Concerning Children’s Television Programming--Revision of Programming Policies for Television Broadcast Stations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Sep. Report No.: OGC-96-37.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Magner TJ. Performance and leadership in multiplayer online gaming [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pipher M. Nebraska’s Lonely Progressives. New York Times. 2014 Dec 27;A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Royal Society of Medicine
AbbreviationJ. R. Soc. Med.
ISSN (print)0141-0768
ISSN (online)1758-1095
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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