How to format your references using the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bennett R. Journal club. A microbiologist wonders what turns us on. Nature. 2009 Sep 3;461(7260):15.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kundu P, Pettersson S. Immunology: Mammalian watchdog targets bacteria. Nature. 2014 Aug 28;512(7515):377–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jeong K-H, Kim J, Lee LP. Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes. Science. 2006 Apr 28;312(5773):557–61.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Masuda S, Awaji T, Sugiura N, Matthews JP, Toyoda T, Kawai Y, et al. Simulated rapid warming of abyssal North Pacific waters. Science. 2010 Jul 16;329(5989):319–22.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shanmugam R, Chattamvelli R. Statistics for Scientists and Engineers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Kotulski ZA. Error Analysis with Applications in Engineering. Szczepinski W, editor. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010. X, 270 p. (Solid Mechanics and Its Applications; vol. 169).
A chapter in an edited book
Krantz SG, Parks HR. The Plateau Problem. In: Parks HR, editor. A Mathematical Odyssey: Journey from the Real to the Complex. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2014. p. 111–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine.

Blog post
Andrews R. Elon Musk Wants To Fix South Australia’s Energy Crisis In Just 100 Days [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Judicial Space Follow-up. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Apr. Report No.: GGD-94-135R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez J. Viviendo en las sombras: Examining the educational experiences of undocumented immigrant Latino students in a public secondary school setting [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Apuzzo M, Huetteman E. White House Knew Flynn Lied, Ex-Official Testifies. New York Times. 2017 May 9;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Royal Society of Medicine
AbbreviationJ. R. Soc. Med.
ISSN (print)0141-0768
ISSN (online)1758-1095
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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