How to format your references using the Arts citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arts. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turok, N. Africa AIMS high. Nature 2011, 474, 567–569.
A journal article with 2 authors
Towbin, J.A.; Bowles, N.E. The failing heart. Nature 2002, 415, 227–233.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tosca, N.J.; Knoll, A.H.; McLennan, S.M. Water activity and the challenge for life on early Mars. Science 2008, 320, 1204–1207.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hurst, J.L.; Payne, C.E.; Nevison, C.M.; Marie, A.D.; Humphries, R.E.; Robertson, D.H.; Cavaggioni, A.; Beynon, R.J. Individual recognition in mice mediated by major urinary proteins. Nature 2001, 414, 631–634.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cross, M.; MacDonald, B. Nutrition in Institutions; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2008; ISBN 9781444301663.
An edited book
Handbook of Maintenance Management and Engineering; Ben-Daya, M., Duffuaa, S.O., Raouf, A., Knezevic, J., Ait-Kadi, D., Eds.; Springer: London, 2009; ISBN 9781848824713.
A chapter in an edited book
Franche, C.; Bogusz, D. Signalling and Communication in the Actinorhizal Symbiosis. In Signaling and Communication in Plant Symbiosis; Perotto, S., Baluška, F., Eds.; Signaling and Communication in Plants; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 73–92 ISBN 9783642209659.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arts.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Africa Has A Long Way To Go To Close The Gap On Antibiotic Resistance Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Global Positioning System: Significant Challenges in Sustaining and Upgrading Widely Used Capabilities; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2009;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Regmi, K. Computer Vision and Image Processing Toolbox for MATLAB. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University: Edwardsville, IL, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. Covering the Rising Cost of Long-Term Care. New York Times 2013, F3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArts
ISSN (online)2076-0752

Other styles