How to format your references using the Arts citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arts. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haber, J.E. Comment on “Cell Type Regulates Selective Segregation of Mouse Chromosome 7 DNA Strands in Mitosis.” Science 2006, 313, 1045; author reply 1045.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sutton, R.T.; Hodson, D.L.R. Atlantic Ocean Forcing of North American and European Summer Climate. Science 2005, 309, 115–118.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hung, R.-J.; Pak, C.W.; Terman, J.R. Direct Redox Regulation of F-Actin Assembly and Disassembly by Mical. Science 2011, 334, 1710–1713.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fre, S.; Huyghe, M.; Mourikis, P.; Robine, S.; Louvard, D.; Artavanis-Tsakonas, S. Notch Signals Control the Fate of Immature Progenitor Cells in the Intestine. Nature 2005, 435, 964–968.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cauvin, C.; Escobar, F.; Serradj, A. Thematic Cartography and Transformations; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2013; ISBN 9781118558133.
An edited book
Translational Approach to Heart Failure; Bartunek, J., Vanderheyden, M., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2013; ISBN 9781461473442.
A chapter in an edited book
Lakhani, A.D.; Yang, E.Y.; Matthews, B.; Johnson, I.; Naqvi, S.; Silaghi, G.C. Threat Analysis and Attacks on XtreemOS: a Grid–enabled Operating System. In Towards Next Generation Grids: Proceedings of the CoreGRID Symposium 2007; Priol, T., Vanneschi, M., Eds.; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2007; pp. 53–62 ISBN 9780387724973.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arts.

Blog post
Andrew, D. Humans Now Drive Evolution On Earth, Both Creating And Destroying Species Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Year 2000 Computing Crisis: FAA Is Making Progress But Important Challenges Remain; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bornmann, J.W. Becoming Soldiers: Army Basic Training and the Negotiation of Identity. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by Arts, Briefly; Shopping Picasso. New York Times 2006, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArts
ISSN (online)2076-0752

Other styles