How to format your references using the Journal of the Royal Society Interface citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Royal Society Interface. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service RF. 2000 NUCLEAR SCIENCE: DOE Drops Plan to Restart Reactor. Science 290, 1666b–7b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wenseleers T, Ratnieks FLW. 2006 Enforced altruism in insect societies. Nature 444, 50.
A journal article with 3 authors
Haile-Selassie Y, Suwa G, White TD. 2004 Late Miocene teeth from Middle Awash, Ethiopia, and early hominid dental evolution. Science 303, 1503–1505.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Barker J, Atxitia U, Ostler TA, Hovorka O, Chubykalo-Fesenko O, Chantrell RW. 2013 Two-magnon bound state causes ultrafast thermally induced magnetisation switching. Sci. Rep. 3, 3262.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schulze V. 2005 Modern Mechanical Surface Treatment. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Marechal E, Roy S, Lafanechère L, editors. 2011 Chemogenomics and Chemical Genetics: A User’s Introduction for Biologists, Chemists and Informaticians. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bertarelli F, Padoa S, Guaraldi G, Genovese E, Corradini M, Mayeku B, Kilwake J. 2011 Low Cost Wireless Technology and Digital Board for Education in Rural Kenya. In e-Technologies and Networks for Development: First International Conference, ICeND 2011, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, August 3-5, 2011. Proceedings (eds JJ Yonazi, E Sedoyeka, E Ariwa, E El-Qawasmeh), pp. 52–60. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Royal Society Interface.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015 Top 10 New Species of 2014. IFLScience. See (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988 Fund Accountability: Procedures Used for Selected Benefit/Mandatory Spending Programs Are Adequate.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salonga-Moreno DR. 2010 Pressure ulcer prevention and management curriculum for home health agencies. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY JC Jr. 2017 City Will Pay $4 Million in N.B.A. Player’s Arrest. New York Times, 6 April. , A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Royal Society Interface
AbbreviationJ. R. Soc. Interface
ISSN (print)1742-5689
ISSN (online)1742-5662
Biomedical Engineering

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