How to format your references using the Journal of the Royal Society Interface citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Royal Society Interface. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koentges G. 2008 Evolution of anatomy and gene control. Nature 451, 658–663.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bhoj VG, Chen ZJ. 2009 Ubiquitylation in innate and adaptive immunity. Nature 458, 430–437.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ryu WS, Berry RM, Berg HC. 2000 Torque-generating units of the flagellar motor of Escherichia coli have a high duty ratio. Nature 403, 444–447.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lalmi B, Girard JC, Pallecchi E, Silly M, David C, Latil S, Sirotti F, Ouerghi A. 2014 Flower-shaped domains and wrinkles in trilayer epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide. Sci. Rep. 4, 4066.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. 1995 Guidelines for Safe Process Operations and Maintenance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lewis A. 2007 Beginning Google Maps Applications with Rails and Ajax: From Novice to Professional. Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Perfilieva I. 2015 A New Model of a Fuzzy Associative Memory. In Integrated Uncertainty in Knowledge Modelling and Decision Making: 4th International Symposium, IUKM 2015, Nha Trang, Vietnam, October 15-17, 2015, Proceedings (eds V-N Huynh, M Inuiguchi, T Demoeux), pp. 32–42. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Royal Society Interface.

Blog post
Davis J. 2017 No, This Survey Does Not Show That How Much Porn Men Watch Is Linked To Sexual Dysfunction. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986 [Question Concerning Protest Under Army IFB for Dependent School Transportation].

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Okafor-Dike LC. 2008 The effect of leadership on economic development: A case study of Nigeria. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky L. 2010 A Cut Above. New York Times, 31 January. , ST3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Royal Society Interface
AbbreviationJ. R. Soc. Interface
ISSN (print)1742-5689
ISSN (online)1742-5662
Biomedical Engineering

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