How to format your references using the Journal of the Royal Society Interface citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Royal Society Interface. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scott JC. 2004 Materials science. Is there an immortal memory? Science 304, 62–63.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bercovici D, Karato S-I. 2003 Whole-mantle convection and the transition-zone water filter. Nature 425, 39–44.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lu K, Lu L, Suresh S. 2009 Strengthening materials by engineering coherent internal boundaries at the nanoscale. Science 324, 349–352.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Metodiev MV, Matheos D, Rose MD, Stone DE. 2002 Regulation of MAPK function by direct interaction with the mating-specific Galpha in yeast. Science 296, 1483–1486.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Freeman RL. 2005 Fundamentals of Telecommunications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kjems J, Ferapontova E, Gothelf KV, editors. 2014 Nucleic Acid Nanotechnology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kuksin SB. 2008 Three theorems on perturbed KdV. In Hamiltonian Dynamical Systems and Applications (ed W Craig), pp. 85–92. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Royal Society Interface.

Blog post
Luntz S. 2014 ‘Green’ Jet Fuel From Sunlight Developed. IFLScience. See (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990 Financial Problems in the Stafford Student Loan Program.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCain AK. 2015 Influence of market setting and time of purchase on counts of aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli, and coliform and prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in beef, pork, and chicken in Vietnam. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McPHATE M. 2016 Man Cuffed on Failure to Return VHS Tape. New York Times, 27 March. , A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Royal Society Interface
AbbreviationJ. R. Soc. Interface
ISSN (print)1742-5689
ISSN (online)1742-5662
Biomedical Engineering

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