How to format your references using the Axioms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Axioms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abdool Karim, S.S. Retrospective. Nelson R. Mandela (1918-2013). Science 2014, 343, 150.
A journal article with 2 authors
Solomon, J.H.; Hartmann, M.J. Biomechanics: robotic whiskers used to sense features. Nature 2006, 443, 525.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lohman, D.J.; Bickford, D.; Sodhi, N.S. Environment. The burning issue. Science 2007, 316, 376.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hong, J.; Park, M.K.; Lee, E.J.; Lee, D.; Hwang, D.S.; Ryu, S. Origin of new broad Raman D and G peaks in annealed graphene. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2700.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kindmann, R.; Kraus, M. Steel Structures; Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG: Berlin, Germany, 2012; ISBN 9783433600771.
An edited book
Collaboration and Technology: 21st International Conference, CRIWG 2015, Yerevan, Armenia, September 22-25, 2015, Proceedings; Baloian, N., Zorian, Y., Taslakian, P., Shoukouryan, S., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; 1st ed. 2015.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 9334; ISBN 9783319227467.
A chapter in an edited book
Pilet, F. Inability to work, disability and vocational rehabilitation: does the general practitioner have a role to play in these processes? In Vocational Rehabilitation; Franchignoni, F., Ed.; Collection de L’Académie Européenne de Médecine de Réadaptation; Springer: Paris, 2006; pp. 41–51 ISBN 9782287226090.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Axioms.

Blog post
Davis, J. 20 Million-Year-Old Salamander Found Preserved In Amber Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Patent and Trademark Amendments of 1980 Set the Stage for Uniform Patent Practice by Federal Agencies; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1982;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rossi, G. Anesthesiology, geriatric surgery, and the risk of post-operative cognitive dysfunction. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. For 239th-Ranked Player, Faith in Qualifying Pays Off. New York Times 2017, D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAxioms
ISSN (online)2075-1680

Other styles