How to format your references using the Axioms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Axioms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heglund, N.C. Physiology. Running a-Fowl of the Law. Science 2004, 303, 47–48.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ellis, G.; Silk, J. Scientific Method: Defend the Integrity of Physics. Nature 2014, 516, 321–323.
A journal article with 3 authors
Traag, V.A.; Krings, G.; Van Dooren, P. Significant Scales in Community Structure. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2930.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mikkola, I.; Heavey, B.; Horcher, M.; Busslinger, M. Reversion of B Cell Commitment upon Loss of Pax5 Expression. Science 2002, 297, 110–113.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Traitler, H. Food Industry Innovation School, The; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2015; ISBN 9781118947654.
An edited book
Control Theory of Digitally Networked Dynamic Systems; Lunze, J., Ed.; Springer International Publishing: Heidelberg, 2014; ISBN 9783319011301.
A chapter in an edited book
Yang, W.; Shen, L.; Shi, P. Mapping Landslide Risk of the World. In World Atlas of Natural Disaster Risk; Shi, P., Kasperson, R., Eds.; IHDP/Future Earth-Integrated Risk Governance Project Series; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015; pp. 57–66 ISBN 9783662454299.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Axioms.

Blog post
Fang, J. Engineered Human Intestines Function Like the Real Thing in Mice Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Pipeline Safety: Use of Instrumented Technology to Inspect Pipelines; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Regmi, K. Computer Vision and Image Processing Toolbox for MATLAB. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University: Edwardsville, IL, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. For Russia’s Nouveaux Riches, Indoor Plumbing Deluxe. New York Times 2005, A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAxioms
ISSN (online)2075-1680

Other styles