How to format your references using the Axioms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Axioms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Victor, P. Questioning Economic Growth. Nature 2010, 468, 370–371.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goto, H.; Uchikawa, H. Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computation with a Soft-Decision Decoder for Error Correction and Detection by Teleportation. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2044.
A journal article with 3 authors
Engler, H.S.; Spencer, K.C.; Gilbert, L.E. Preventing Cyanide Release from Leaves. Nature 2000, 406, 144–145.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Noda, S.; Yokoyama, M.; Imada, M.; Chutinan, A.; Mochizuki, M. Polarization Mode Control of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser by Unit Cell Structure Design. Science 2001, 293, 1123–1125.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gauthier, M.; Andreff, N.; Dombre, E. Intracorporeal Robotics; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, USA, 2014; ISBN 9781118579107.
An edited book
Learning Chest Imaging; Pedrozo Pupo, J.C., Ed.; Learning Imaging; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; ISBN 9783642341465.
A chapter in an edited book
Jonquet, C.; Dugenie, P.; Cerri, S.A. Service-Based Integration of Grid and Multi-Agent Systems Models. In Service-Oriented Computing: Agents, Semantics, and Engineering: AAMAS 2008 International Workshop, SOCASE 2008, Estoril, Portugal, May 12, 2008 Proceedings; Kowalczyk, R., Huhns, M., Klusch, M., Maamar, Z., Vo, Q.B., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; pp. 56–68 ISBN 9783540799672.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Axioms.

Blog post
Andrews, R. Groundbreaking Test For Parkinson’s Disease Could Lead To Early Detection Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Commercial Space Launches: FAA’s Risk Assessment Process Is Not Yet Updated; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2014;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shen, H. Organization -Employee Relationships Model: A Two -Sided Story. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park: College Park, MD, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick, S.M. Local Bakeries Prepare for Holiday Overdrive. New York Times 2013, LI10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAxioms
ISSN (online)2075-1680

Other styles