How to format your references using the Axioms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Axioms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benkler, Y. Intellectual property. Commons-based strategies and the problems of patents. Science 2004, 305, 1110–1111.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lutz, W.; Kc, S. Global human capital: integrating education and population. Science 2011, 333, 587–592.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chung, K.; Lee, C.-H.; Yi, G.-C. Transferable GaN layers grown on ZnO-coated graphene layers for optoelectronic devices. Science 2010, 330, 655–657.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gupta, G.P.; Nguyen, D.X.; Chiang, A.C.; Bos, P.D.; Kim, J.Y.; Nadal, C.; Gomis, R.R.; Manova-Todorova, K.; Massagué, J. Mediators of vascular remodelling co-opted for sequential steps in lung metastasis. Nature 2007, 446, 765–770.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pai MD FACC FRCP Edin, R.G.; Varadarajan MD FACC, P. Echocardiography Board Review; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2014; ISBN 9781118515563.
An edited book
Business Information Systems: 10th International Conference, BIS 2007, Poznan, Poland, April 25-27, 2007. Proceedings; Abramowicz, W., Ed.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; Vol. 4439; ISBN 9783540720348.
A chapter in an edited book
Bonesso, S.; Comacchio, A.; Pizzi, C. Open Innovation at Project Level: Key Issues and Future Research Agenda. In Project-Based Knowledge in Organizing Open Innovation; Bonesso, S., Comacchio, A., Pizzi, C., Eds.; Springer: London, 2014; pp. 85–95 ISBN 9781447165088.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Axioms.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Two Crocodiles Fight To The Death Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office No Child Left Behind Act: Improvements Needed in Education’s Process for Tracking States’ Implementation of Key Provisions; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Basik, N. An evolutionary approach to intuitionism and moral realism. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Isaac, M. SoftBank of Japan Is Said to Be Weighing an Investment in Uber. New York Times 2017, B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAxioms
ISSN (online)2075-1680

Other styles