How to format your references using the Axioms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Axioms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fabian, A.C. Radio Galaxies. Bubbles, Flows, and Fields. Science 2002, 296, 1040–1041.
A journal article with 2 authors
Neshev, D.; Kivshar, Y. Physics. Nonlinear Optics Pushed to the Edge. Science 2014, 344, 483–484.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ur, J.A.; Karsgaard, P.; Oates, J. Early Urban Development in the Near East. Science 2007, 317, 1188.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hurley, S.M.; Dermota, T.E.; Hydutsky, D.P.; Castleman, A.W., Jr Dynamics of Hydrogen Bromide Dissolution in the Ground and Excited States. Science 2002, 298, 202–204.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Turner, J.E.; Downing, D.J.; Bogard, J.S. Statistical Methods in Radiation Physics; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2012; ISBN 9783527646548.
An edited book
Thoma, J. Simulation with Entropy Thermodynamics: Understanding Matter and Systems with Bondgraphs; Mocellin, G., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006; ISBN 9783540327981.
A chapter in an edited book
Kammer, J.A. Ciliary Body as a Therapeutic Target. In Surgical Innovations in Glaucoma; Samples, J.R., Ahmed, I.I.K., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2014; pp. 45–59 ISBN 9781461483472.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Axioms.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Scientists Fail To Find Mysterious New Type Of Neutrino Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Technology: DOD’s Federal Logistics Data on Compact Disc Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1990;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nikolova, S. Health Insurance Transitions of SCHIP-Eligible Children in Response to Higher Public Premiums. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina: Chapel Hill, NC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. Houston And Dallas Get Relief On Pensions. New York Times 2017, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAxioms
ISSN (online)2075-1680

Other styles