How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Orhon, “Istanbul canal needs environmental study,” Nature, vol. 513, no. 7519, p. 461, Sep. 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. R. A. Taylor and W. M. Kier, “Switching skeletons: hydrostatic support in molting crabs,” Science, vol. 301, no. 5630, pp. 209–210, Jul. 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Costello, S. Gaines, and L. R. Gerber, “Conservation science: A market approach to saving the whales,” Nature, vol. 481, no. 7380, pp. 139–140, Jan. 2012.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Martínez-Sansigre et al., “The obscuration by dust of most of the growth of supermassive black holes,” Nature, vol. 436, no. 7051, pp. 666–669, Aug. 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. Gramß, S. Bornholdt, M. Groß, M. Mitchell, and T. Pellizzari, Non-Standard Computation. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2005.
An edited book
J. Basedow, U. Magnus, and R. Wolfrum, Eds., The Hamburg Lectures on Maritime Affairs 2007 & 2008, vol. 16. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
P. R. Blackett, P. Alaupovic, K. Short, and K. C. Copeland, “Assessment and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease in Obese Children,” in Management of Pediatric Obesity and Diabetes, R. J. Ferry Jr., Ed. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2011, pp. 101–140.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy.

Blog post
B. Taub, “Riding A Roller Coaster Can Help Get Rid Of Kidney Stones,” IFLScience, Sep. 26, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Information Technology: Homeland Security Needs to Improve Entry Exit System Expenditure Planning,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-03-563, Jun. 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H. T. Nguyen, “The ugly duckling: Juvenile delinquents in non-delinquent networks,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
E. St. John Kelly, “Whose Hat?,” New York Times, p. 93, Nov. 30, 1997.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy
ISSN (print)1949-3029
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

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