How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. A. Frey, “Enzymology. Coenzymes and radicals,” Science, vol. 294, no. 5551, pp. 2489–2490, Dec. 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. W. Brown and T. S. Braver, “Learned predictions of error likelihood in the anterior cingulate cortex,” Science, vol. 307, no. 5712, pp. 1118–1121, Feb. 2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
I. A. Solov’yov, T. Domratcheva, and K. Schulten, “Separation of photo-induced radical pair in cryptochrome to a functionally critical distance,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 3845, Jan. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Isobe, T. Miyagoshi, K. Shibata, and T. Yokoyama, “Filamentary structure on the Sun from the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability,” Nature, vol. 434, no. 7032, pp. 478–481, Mar. 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. d’Andria and I. Gabarret, Building 21st Century Entrepreneurship. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017.
An edited book
W. N. Sharpe, Ed., Springer Handbook of Experimental Solid Mechanics. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
O. Batura and T. Evas, “Information Society Goes East: ICT Policy in the EU’s Eastern Partnership Cooperation Framework,” in Political and Legal Perspectives of the EU Eastern Partnership Policy, T. Kerikmäe and A. Chochia, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 39–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy.

Blog post
J. Fang, “New Species Of Terror Bird Discovered in Argentina,” IFLScience, Apr. 10, 2015. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “NTSB Recommendations,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, T-RCED-87-28, May 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K. J. Ballard, “Frequent factors for psychiatric hospital readmission,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
E. Steel and J. Koblin, “Lawyer Says Fox News Is Under Investigation,” New York Times, p. B5, Feb. 16, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy
ISSN (print)1949-3029
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

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