How to format your references using the Journal of the National Medical Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the National Medical Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zaanen J. High-temperature superconductivity: electron mirages in an iron salt. Nature. 2014;515(7526):205-206.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matzke MA, Matzke AJ. Cloning problems don’t surprise plant biologists. Science. 2000;288(5475):2318b.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grenier MB, McDonald DB, Buskirk SW. Rapid population growth of a critically endangered carnivore. Science. 2007;317(5839):779.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mazzali PA, Röpke FK, Benetti S, Hillebrandt W. A common explosion mechanism for type Ia supernovae. Science. 2007;315(5813):825-828.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cliteur P. The Secular Outlook. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Mangiameli S, ed. Italian Regionalism: Between Unitary Traditions and Federal Processes: Investigating Italy’s Form of State. Vol 1. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Dotz AD. A Pilot of 3D Printing of Medical Devices in Haiti. In: Hostettler S, Hazboun E, Bolay J-C, eds. Technologies for Development: What Is Essential?. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:33-44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the National Medical Association.

Blog post
Andrew D. Should Scientists Engage In Activism? IFLScience. Published March 9, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Acquisitions: Space Based Infrared System Could Benefit from Technology Insertion Planning. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen A. Poetry as a Museum. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pols M. With Friends Like These. New York Times. April 5, 2015:BR18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the National Medical Association
AbbreviationJ. Natl. Med. Assoc.
ISSN (print)0027-9684
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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