How to format your references using the Journal of the National Medical Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the National Medical Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon D. All systems go for neuroscience. Nature. 2001;414(6860):4-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
McMahon HT, Gallop JL. Membrane curvature and mechanisms of dynamic cell membrane remodelling. Nature. 2005;438(7068):590-596.
A journal article with 3 authors
Siegel M, Buschman TJ, Miller EK. Cortical information flow during flexible sensorimotor decisions. Science. 2015;348(6241):1352-1355.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Block M, Ackermann D, Blaum K, et al. Direct mass measurements above uranium bridge the gap to the island of stability. Nature. 2010;463(7282):785-788.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Niven PR. Balanced Scorecard Evolution. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Gudipati MS, Castillo-Rogez J, eds. The Science of Solar System Ices. Vol 356. Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Fehr E. The Effect of Neuropeptides on Human Trust and Altruism: A Neuroeconomic Perspective. In: Pfaff DW, Kordon C, Chanson P, Christen Y, eds. Hormones and Social Behaviour. Research and Perspectives in Endocrine Interactions. Springer; 2008:47-56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the National Medical Association.

Blog post
Evans K. You Will Probably Be Stereotyped If You Use These Words. IFLScience. Published November 17, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Spectrum Management: Preliminary Findings on Federal Relocation Costs and Auction Revenues. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martinez J. Effective Nonprofit Collaborative Networks. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. Fox Show Is Trump’s Two-Way Mirror. New York Times. July 19, 2017:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the National Medical Association
AbbreviationJ. Natl. Med. Assoc.
ISSN (print)0027-9684
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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