How to format your references using the Journal of the National Medical Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the National Medical Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Lazar MA. How obesity causes diabetes: not a tall tale. Science. 2005;307(5708):373-375.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Pasupathy A, Miller EK. Different time courses of learning-related activity in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. Nature. 2005;433(7028):873-876.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Wu B, Ooi TL, He ZJ. Perceiving distance accurately by a directional process of integrating ground information. Nature. 2004;428(6978):73-77.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Tiwari M, Sharma D, Singh M, Tripathi RD, Trivedi PK. Expression of OsMATE1 and OsMATE2 alters development, stress responses and pathogen susceptibility in Arabidopsis. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3964.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Bauer E. Design for Reliability. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1.
Payne S, Eardley I, O’Flynn K, eds. Imaging and Technology in Urology: Principles and Clinical Applications. Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Quay J, Seaman J. Moving Past the Confusion. In: Quay J, Seaman J, eds. John Dewey and Education Outdoors: Making Sense of the ‘Educational Situation’ through More than a Century of Progressive Reforms. SensePublishers; 2013:61-82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the National Medical Association.

Blog post
1.
O`Callaghan J. Parts Of The Persian Gulf Could Be Unsafe For Humans By 2100 Due To Climate Change. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Truck Safety: Motor Carriers Office Hampered by Limited Information on Causes of Crashes and Other Data Problems. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Warren SM. The leadership process: An analysis of follower influence on leader behavior in hospital organizations. Published online 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kishkovsky S. Moscow Theater Hit Again by Fire. New York Times. May 28, 2005:B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the National Medical Association
AbbreviationJ. Natl. Med. Assoc.
ISSN (print)0027-9684
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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