How to format your references using the Journal of the National Medical Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the National Medical Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Vela C. Turn Spain’s budget crisis into an opportunity. Nature. 2012;486(7401):7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Finlay CC, Jackson A. Equatorially dominated magnetic field change at the surface of Earth’s core. Science. 2003;300(5628):2084-2086.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Strick TR, Croquette V, Bensimon D. Single-molecule analysis of DNA uncoiling by a type II topoisomerase. Nature. 2000;404(6780):901-904.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Bininda-Emonds ORP, Cardillo M, Jones KE, et al. The delayed rise of present-day mammals. Nature. 2007;446(7135):507-512.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Perez A. Network Security. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Sirenko YK, Ström S, eds. Modern Theory of Gratings: Resonant Scattering: Analysis Techniques and Phenomena. Vol 153. Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Pande A, Zambreno J. The Secure Wavelet Transform. In: Zambreno J, ed. Embedded Multimedia Security Systems: Algorithms and Architectures. Springer; 2013:67-89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the National Medical Association.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S. A Girl Left Her Contacts In For 6 Months And Amoebas Ate Her Eyeballs. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. National Airspace System: Status of Wide Area Augmentation System Project. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Cusick JA. Does size really matter? How synchrony and size affect the dynamic of aggression between two sympatric species of dolphin in the Bahamas. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Hollander S. The Bus-Stop Guessing Game. New York Times. March 1, 2009:CY5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the National Medical Association
AbbreviationJ. Natl. Med. Assoc.
ISSN (print)0027-9684
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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