How to format your references using the The Seventeenth Century citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Seventeenth Century. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Masood, Ehsan. “Arab Liberals Must Stay in the Game.” Nature 488, no. 7410 (August 9, 2012): 131.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karels, T. J., and R. Boonstra. “Concurrent Density Dependence and Independence in Populations of Arctic Ground Squirrels.” Nature 408, no. 6811 (November 23, 2000): 460–63.
A journal article with 3 authors
McKinney, Jonathan C., Alexander Tchekhovskoy, and Roger D. Blandford. “Alignment of Magnetized Accretion Disks and Relativistic Jets with Spinning Black Holes.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339, no. 6115 (January 4, 2013): 49–52.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Weisswange, Ina, Timothy P. Newsome, Sibylle Schleich, and Michael Way. “The Rate of N-WASP Exchange Limits the Extent of ARP2/3-Complex-Dependent Actin-Based Motility.” Nature 458, no. 7234 (March 5, 2009): 87–91.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eales, Lesley-Jane. Immunology for Life Scientists. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005.
An edited book
Spring, Neil, and George F. Riley, eds. Passive and Active Measurement: 12th International Conference, PAM 2011, Atlanta, GA, USA, March 20-22, 2011. Proceedings. Vol. 6579. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Gourlay, Lesley, and Martin Oliver. “It’s Not All About the Learner: Reframing Students’ Digital Literacy as Sociomaterial Practice.” In Research, Boundaries, and Policy in Networked Learning, edited by Thomas Ryberg, Christine Sinclair, Sian Bayne, and Maarten de Laat, 77–92. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Seventeenth Century.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. “Carbon Nanotubes Can Act As ‘Bridges’ Between Living Neurons.” IFLScience. IFLScience, July 18, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “First-Year Implementation of the Federal Managers’ Financial Integrity Act in the Department of Education.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, May 9, 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, Sharon Alyssa. “Development of an Age-Appropriate, Facility-Specific Nutrition Screening and Assessment Tool for the Elderly.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, James. “Mets Have Little Time To Get Into Wild-Card Race.” New York Times, June 21, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Seventeenth Century
AbbreviationSeventeenth Century
ISSN (print)0268-117X
ISSN (online)2050-4616
Cultural Studies

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