How to format your references using the The Seventeenth Century citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Seventeenth Century. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maxmen, Amy. “Animal Behaviour: Come Mate with Me.” Nature 526, no. 7572 (October 8, 2015): S8-10.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee, A. L., and A. J. Wand. “Microscopic Origins of Entropy, Heat Capacity and the Glass Transition in Proteins.” Nature 411, no. 6836 (May 24, 2001): 501–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Matsumoto, Masakazu, Shinji Saito, and Iwao Ohmine. “Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Ice Nucleation and Growth Process Leading to Water Freezing.” Nature 416, no. 6879 (March 28, 2002): 409–13.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chan, Cheong Xin, Guillaume Bernard, Olivier Poirion, James M. Hogan, and Mark A. Ragan. “Inferring Phylogenies of Evolving Sequences without Multiple Sequence Alignment.” Scientific Reports 4 (September 30, 2014): 6504.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boxer, Harry. Profitable Day and Swing Trading. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014.
An edited book
Dodds, Susan, and Rachel A. Ankeny, eds. Big Picture Bioethics: Developing Democratic Policy in Contested Domains. Vol. 16. The International Library of Ethics, Law and Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Chaudhuri, Arindam, and Soumya K. Ghosh. “Possibility Theory for Operational Risk.” In Quantitative Modeling of Operational Risk in Finance and Banking Using Possibility Theory, edited by Soumya K. Ghosh, 75–112. Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Seventeenth Century.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. “The Human Sense Of Smell Is Better Than You Think.” IFLScience. IFLScience, May 11, 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Survey of Pricing on NASA Contract.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, August 1, 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zaegel, Barbara M. “An Evaluation of the School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Check In/Check Out Behavior Education Program.” Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, B. Y. Mary A. “For French, Apprehension About Travel to U.S.” New York Times, March 13, 2003.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Seventeenth Century
AbbreviationSeventeenth Century
ISSN (print)0268-117X
ISSN (online)2050-4616
Cultural Studies

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