How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Logic citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Logic. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Eisenstein, Chronobiology: stepping out of time, Nature. 497 (2013) S10-2.
A journal article with 2 authors
B.-L. Huang, S. Mackem, Evolutionary developmental biology: Use it or lose it, Nature. 511 (2014) 34–35.
A journal article with 3 authors
T.L. Tellinghuisen, J. Marcotrigiano, C.M. Rice, Structure of the zinc-binding domain of an essential component of the hepatitis C virus replicase, Nature. 435 (2005) 374–379.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Z. Zhu, R. Dennell, W. Huang, Y. Wu, S. Qiu, S. Yang, Z. Rao, Y. Hou, J. Xie, J. Han, T. Ouyang, Hominin occupation of the Chinese Loess Plateau since about 2.1 million years ago, Nature. 559 (2018) 608–612.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H.-G. Elias, Macromolecules, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006.
An edited book
M. Martellini, ed., Cyber Security: Deterrence and IT Protection for Critical Infrastructures, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
M.A. Evans, J. Saint-Aubin, An Eye for Print: Child and Adult Attention to Print During Shared Book Reading, in: D. Aram, O. Korat (Eds.), Literacy Development and Enhancement Across Orthographies and Cultures, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2010: pp. 43–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Logic.

Blog post
K. Evans, One Delicious Combination Will Boost Attention Better Than Any Other Drink, Says Study, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Transportation Infrastructure: Benefits of Traffic Control Signal Systems Are Not Being Fully Realized, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. McFarland-Mancini, Prolactin Production by Human Breast Adipose Tissue and Adipocytes, Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Feeney, Middle Eastern Munch, New York Times. (2008) NJ12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Logic
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Log.
ISSN (print)1570-8683
ScopeApplied Mathematics

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