How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Logic citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Logic. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.F. Brookfield, Predicting the future, Nature. 411 (2001) 999.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Liechti, E.E. Farmer, The jasmonate pathway, Science. 296 (2002) 1649–1650.
A journal article with 3 authors
F. Exadaktylos, A.M. Espín, P. Brañas-Garza, Experimental subjects are not different, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1213.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H.S. Seo, J.-Y. Yang, M. Ishikawa, C. Bolle, M.L. Ballesteros, N.-H. Chua, LAF1 ubiquitination by COP1 controls photomorphogenesis and is stimulated by SPA1, Nature. 423 (2003) 995–999.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.M. Tagare, Electric Power Generation, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
Y. Shiozawa, Artificial Market Experiments with the U-Mart System, Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
A.-M. Oostveen, I. Hjorth, B. Pickering, M. Boniface, E.T. Meyer, C. Cobo, R. Schroeder, Cross-Disciplinary Lessons for the Future Internet, in: F. Álvarez, F. Cleary, P. Daras, J. Domingue, A. Galis, A. Garcia, A. Gavras, S. Karnourskos, S. Krco, M.-S. Li, V. Lotz, H. Müller, E. Salvadori, A.-M. Sassen, H. Schaffers, B. Stiller, G. Tselentis, P. Turkama, T. Zahariadis (Eds.), The Future Internet: Future Internet Assembly 2012: From Promises to Reality, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 42–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Logic.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, How We Can Use The Moon To Get To Mars, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Stafford Student Loans: Prompt Payment of Origination Fees Could Reduce Costs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.A. Burg, Faculty perspectives on doctoral student mentoring: The mentor’s odyssey, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.L. Dorman, What Kal Penn Loves About Being in Toronto, New York Times. (2017) TR2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Logic
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Log.
ISSN (print)1570-8683
ScopeApplied Mathematics

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